|09:00-09:30 Pozvano predavanje
|Agata Ferreira (Faculty of Administration and Social Science, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland)
Developing Better Blockchain Regulation
|T. Didak Prekpalaj (Central State Office for the Development of the Digital Society, Zagreb, Croatia)
The Role of Key Words and the Use of the Multilingual Eurovoc Thesaurus when Searching for Legal Regulations of the Republic of Croatia - Research Results
As legislation today is one of the largest collections of documents in electronic form, access to such documents should be publicly available by making legal regulations accessible to both legal professionals and all interested citizens, in a transparent way. The most comprehensive, free, and permanent access to legislation is provided by the Central State Office for the Development of the Digital Society through the CADIAL search engine. The collection of legal regulations in electronic form contains legal regulations of the Republic of Croatia published in the electronic edition of the Official Gazette. All regulations can be searched by full text, and the collection is organized as a system of interrelated texts of regulations and information about them. Unique content analysis of texts and carefully selected key words that describe the document allow the user to quickly search for documents. The Eurovoc Thesaurus enables the content of documents to be unambiguously displayed in a documentation system, and their metadata to be created in high quality. It also ensures the unambiguity of user queries addressed to the documentation and information system.
The paper describes the results of a three-month user queries analyzed through five case studies, with detailed processing of semantic queries by examining their correspondence with the words in the title, the words in the text of the regulation and the correspondence with Eurovoc descriptors. As part of the research, a survey of CADIAL search engine users’ satisfaction was conducted.
|R. Matković (Public health institute of Split-dalmatia county, Split, Croatia), L. Vejmelka (University of Zagreb, Faculty of Law, Department of Social Work, Zagreb, Croatia), Ž. Ključević (Public health institute of Split-dalmatia county, Split, Croatia)
Impact of COVID 19 on the Use of Social Networks Security Settings of Elementary and High School Students in the Split-Dalmatia County
The pandemic caused by SARS-Cov-2 has affected all aspects of life and has accelerated an unplanned digitalization of society at all levels. Children and young people have encountered many changes and the most prominent is the partial or complete closure of schools and transfer to online classes, which resulted in the increase of time that children spend online.
During December 2020, Institute of Public Health of Split-Dalmatia County conducted a follow-up quantitative survey via online questionnaire - first wave was conducted in the 2017. The research involved students from elementary schools (210 students of 7th and 8th grade) and high schools (284 students from all four grades). The purpose of this paper is to present the results which include use of social networks and use of security settings on social networks among children.
Almost 87% of elementary school students and 83.45% of high school students state that they used the Internet more and much more during the pandemic than usual. However, an interesting fact is that in both subsamples there is an increase in knowledge about security settings and increase in usage of additional security settings and fewer participants who have a public available profile on social networks compared to the first wave of research.
|P. Hrvoj (Centar za podršku zajednicama, stručnjacima, obitelji, mladima i djeci za kvalitetniji i cjelovitiji, Zagreb, Croatia)
Procjena potreba digitalnih kompetencija: rezultati istraživanja stručnjaka koji rade s djecom u alternativnoj skrbi
Ovim se radom želi steći uvid u korištenje modernih tehnologija u profesionalnoj praksi i u uporabu digitalnih alata, kao i dobiti uvid u digitalne kompetencije stručnjaka/zaposlenika ustanova/organizacija za djecu u alternativnoj skrbi. Rad obuhvaća digitalne kapacitete ustanova/organizacija, opremljenost digitalnim alatima, digitalne kompetencije stručnjaka/zaposlenika i mogućnost prilagođavanja usluga i aktivnosti u online okruženje. Istraživanje je provedeno 2020. godine, a u istraživanju je sudjelovalo 47 stručnjaka/zaposlenika iz ustanova/ organizacija za djecu i mlade iz svih dijelova Hrvatske. Metoda prikupljanja podataka bila je internetska anketa, a mjerni instrument je upitnik dizajniran za svrhu ovog istraživanja. Rezultati pokazuju da sudionici u svom profesionalnom radu često koriste digitalne alate, da su prilično zadovoljni opremom svojih ustanova/organizacija, da sudionici umjereno ocjenjuju svoje digitalne kompetencije, a većina njih smatra da je uporaba modernih tehnologija neophodna u njihovom radu i izražavaju svoju potrebu za sudjelovanjem u edukacijama o modernim tehnologijama. Zaključak: Potreba za primjenom modernih tehnologija je sve veća u području pomažućih profesija, a posebno kod pružanja pomoći djeci i mladima, pa stoga postoji potreba za kontinuiranim ulaganjem u kvalitetne obrazovne programe u tom području.
|R. Matanovac Vučković, I. Kanceljak, M. Jurić (Faculty of Law, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia)
Is It Time for New Data Governance?
The information society is highly dependent on data production, collection and use. Among many other datasets, data produced and/or collected in the public sector are important source from which new values might be drawn. Therefore, in the European Union, the idea of open data policies is developing through time. The recent legal instrument dedicated to harmonising the open data policies in the Single Digital Market is Directive (EU) 2019/1024 on open data and the re-use of public sector information. It regulates open data policies for documents created or collected in pubic sector bodies, public undertakings, research organisations financed from public sources and public libraries, archives and museums (heritage institutions). Open data policy interferes with the basic principles of intellectual property possibly existing in those documents, particularly copyright and database sui generis right.
The paper shall examine how the exclusive rights of copyright owners interfere with open data policies. With this respect, the works created under the employment contract and commission contract within the public sector play an important role. The Croatian Draft Copyright Act (which is in the first reading within the Croatian Parliament) presents some new solutions that are much more compatible with the aims of the Directive (EU) 2019/1024. Also, Croatian Draft Copyright Act rephrases the database sui generis right, much closer to the content of the Directive 96/9/EC on the legal protection of databases. On the other hand, Directive (EU) 2019/1024 practically eliminates the application of the Directive 96/9/EC within the public sector and, simultaneously, diminishes the exercise of exclusive copyright by public sector bodies. Therefore, the paper's thesis is: the transformation of the general principles of exclusive copyrights and particularly database sui generis rights is already running concerning the public sector, at least at European Union's policy level. It is questionable wheather there is a full consciousness on the consequences.
|G. Vojković, M. Milenković (Fakultet prometnih znanosti, Zagreb, Croatia)
Liability for Early Safety Obsolescence of IoT Devices due to Information Security Reasons
The manufacturer or dealer is obliged to ensure that the device is repaired during the warranty period. In some countries, there is also an obligation to provide maintenance and spare parts for a certain number of years after the warranty period expires. However, the regulations do not specify any obligation to provide security upgrades to IoT and/or other devices connected to the Internet (for example, routers that connect most citizens to the Internet). For example, what if a serious security flaw is discovered a few years after purchase in the communication protocol that the expensive IoT device uses? The manufacturer has no obligation to provide safety upgrades after the warranty period has expired. Therefore, we believe that such a practice is not appropriate, neither technologically, nor ecologically, and that it violates the fundamental principle of conscientiousness and honesty in obligatory relations, known since Roman law, according to which in dealing with the other party one should act with confidence and respect to the person and interests of the other party. In this paper, we would like to explain the existence of the problem of the safety obsolescence of devices and make proposals for improving legal regulation that would reduce the rapid safety obsolescence of devices.
|N. Protrka (Police College, Zagreb, Croatia), M. Plečaš (Libertas International University, Zagreb, Croatia)
Criminal Trend Analysis of Illegal Use of Personal Data for a Period of 2015-2019
This paper presents an analysis of the criminal offence of the unauthorised use of personal data in the Criminal code of the Republic of Croatia, described in article 146 (including the incidence of these crimes over a five-year period).
The paper analyses the impact and efficiency of criminal offences under the code for a five-year period from 2015- 2019 by reviewing data related to reported criminal offences with detailed statistics about reported, resolved and subsequently discovered offences of illegal use of personal data in the Republic of Croatia. Authors have chosen this specific period of time due to the fact that the European General Data Protection Regulative (GDPR) became active in 2018 and it is directly obliging all the member states to pursue consistent implementation regarding personal data. Inter alia, an analysis was performed on victims as well as perpetrators of relevant criminal offences and shown also by the gender. The objectives of the research were to discover how efficient were Croatian institutions in solving criminal offences that are related to illegal use of personal data in the Republic of Croatia 2015-2019. The paper also describes descriptive statistical data concerning these offences and give us prediction of a number of possible offences for a following year.
|J. Jurinić (Centar za pružanje usluga u zajednici Zagreb - Dugave, Zagreb, Croatia), T. Ramljak (Centar za nestalu i zlostavljanu djecu, Osijek, Croatia)
Sexual Exploitation or Child Pornography: Terminological Analysis in Criminal Codes of Southeast European Countries
The accelerated development of modern technologies and the establishment of new channels of communication have enabled the creation of platforms suitable for committing crimes, especially those related to sexual abuse and exploitation of children on the Internet. These criminal offenses are often unrecognized by the authorities, both due to the nature of the virtual environment and the inconsistency of different experts in interpreting and defining certain terms within the field of sexual abuse and exploitation of children on the Internet. Given the above, the authors of this paper seek to define in more detail the forms of abuse and exploitation of children on the Internet and see how these concepts are defined and used in the Criminal Codes of Southeast European countries, which will contribute to better understanding and harmonization of basic determinants in their terminological and conceptual sense. The method of analysis that will be used in this paper is a simple analysis of the content of legal provisions in the legislations of the countries of Southeast Europe. The purpose of this paper is to provide a clear and coherent overview of key concepts and analyze terminology in criminal codes of Southeast European countries in crimes related to sexual abuse and exploitation of children on the Internet.
|F. Molinari, D. Čišić, B. Kovačić (University of Rijeka, Department of Informatics, Rijeka, Croatia)
The Deep Blue Sea of Global Data Flows. Implications of the Convergence of Privacy Regimes for Overseas Transfer of Personal Data
After the General Data Protection Regulation entered into force, the topic of overseas transfer of personal data for purposes of storage and processing has gained visibility and prominence in both the privacy impact assessments and informed consent forms issued by EEA based organisations. Related compliance issues have been exacerbated by a recent ruling of the European Court of Justice, which upheld the adoption by US based providers of Standard Contract Clauses to safeguard the data subjects’ rights of EEA citizens whose personal data is stored or processed on their platforms. A related, relatively unexplored set of privacy issues materializes when data flows take the opposite direction: gathered/stored outside and shared/processed inside the EEA space. This paper takes such perspective to examine, in a comparative fashion, the similarities and distinctions between the GDPR provisions and the privacy regimes of China, US and UK (after Brexit), each of them now undertaking a process of transformation, and fortunately, convergence towards GDPR, although with different approaches and pathways. The topic can be of interest for international research consortia engaged in multi-country data gathering, a trend one may expect to grow in the near future.
|N. Gumzej (Pravni fakultet u Zagrebu, Zagreb, Croatia), N. Protrka (Police College, Ministry of Interior, Zagreb, Croatia)
Evaluation of Digital Evidence in Criminal Proceedings in Croatia with a Focus on Preservation Requirements and Role of Standard Operative Procedures
Abstract – Collection and analysis of digital evidence in criminal proceedings entails risks, such as the contamination of evidence during seizure and/or search of a computer system and the inability to establish its authenticity, which may affect its admissibility and credibility before the courts. For that purpose the requirement on digital evidence preservation is prescribed in the criminal procedure law, which should apply by default to all relevant actors. Analysis of available court decisions and rules of the Criminal Procedure Act confirms that the claims concerning mishandling and/or manipulation of digital evidence do not affect ex lege inadmissibility of such evidence. Such claims would be subject to examination on the credibility (reliability) of evidence before the courts. Any detailed technical procedures and measures to be implemented so as to ensure digital evidence preservation are best suited for regulation by standard operative procedures or perhaps even by sub-legal acts. To that effect, the standard operative procedures discussed in this paper have a proven ability to ensure the common goal of ensuring digital evidence preservation. Adherence to best practices stemming from standardized procedures has shown to be vital for ensuring that investigatory procedures and acquired digital evidence are valid and as such accepted throughout the criminal proceedings.
Tihomir Katulić (Croatia), Hrvoje Lisičar (Croatia), Lucija Vejmelka (Croatia)
Dražen Dragičević (Croatia), Nina Gumzej (Croatia), Marko Jurić (Croatia), Romana Matanovac Vučković (Croatia), Hrvoje Stančić (Croatia), Goran Vojković (Croatia)
Tihomir Katulić (Croatia), Hrvoje Lisičar (Croatia), Marko Jurić (Croatia)
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