|G. Zlodi, I. Majer (Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia), L. Biličić (independent researcher, Zagreb, Croatia)
User Interfaces for Browsing and Searching on Museum and Heritage Digital Platforms: Analysis, Comparison and Mapping of Subject Access Points
Browsing through topics in online catalogues is often the first step in information-seeking process. Therefore, subject analysis and indexing are vitally important. The aim of this paper is to analyse and compare subject terms from top levels of different knowledge organization systems, used for subject search and retrieval in online catalogues of museums and cultural heritage institutions, in order to better understand and improve browsing and searching interfaces. The data for analysis of subject terms were collected from three sources: (1) Tate galleries, (2) Art UK platform and (3) general subject terms listed in The Categories for the Description of Works of Art (CDWA). The terms encompassed in the first two hierarchy levels were then compiled into a single list and coded. In the next stage, they were mapped to two controlled vocabularies: Art & Architecture Thesaurus and Iconclass classification system. The mapping of the terms resulted in the identification of various levels of matching. Based on statistical analysis and interpretation of mapping, a set of recommendations, aimed at ensuring the functionality and convenience of browsing and searching in the context of digital collections in museums and heritage institutions, is offered.
|M. Vigato, T. Babić (Algebra University College, Zagreb, Croatia)
Research on Gamer Motivation Factors Based on the Gamer Motivation Model Framework
Millions of gamers play video games every second, but there are numerous reasons why they do it. Although video games are mainly created for entertainment, they are increasingly being used for educational, artistic, and therapeutic purposes. However, the motives of the players, behind these purposes, are numerous. The game analytics company Quantic Foundry tried to make a categorization of gamer motivations by developing a model that consists of six motivation groups: the action, the social, the mastery, the achievement, the creativity, and the immersion components. They are divided into twelve factors – excitement and destruction; competition and community; challenge and strategy; completion and power; fantasy and story; discovery and design. This research followed the framework of Quantic Foundry's model and conducted a survey among the student population of Algebra University College during the academic year 2020/2021. With the presentation of the results of the survey and our subsequent analysis of them, the goal of the conducted research presented in this paper is to contribute to the understanding of what motivates gamers to spend their time playing video games, a question of increasing importance in numerous other fields related to this growing phenomenon.
|G. Zlodi, M. Zeman, A. Marinković (Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia), M. Marušić (Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Rijeka, Rijeka, Croatia)
Discovering the Old Dubrovnik Cathedrals: Stone Fragments Analysis, Cataloguing and Structured Terminology Development in Digital Environment
The research and educational project Discovering the Old Dubrovnik Cathedrals was launched in 2015. Its activities were focused on the study of archaeological finds originating from the site of two consecutive medieval cathedral buildings under the actual Baroque Cathedral in Dubrovnik. The archaeological excavations at the site were undertaken after the earthquake of 1979, and the resulting finds have not been studied since. The primary activity of the educational project that so far involved over 40 students was the study of stone and glass fragments, as well as fragments of wall paintings and pottery. Out of approx. 3000 stone fragments, 250 were selected for detailed cataloguing, analysis and indexing. A metadata record was created for each object and each record was accompanied by multiple photographic representations of the fragment. Whole-part relationships between records allow the structuring and simulation of certain architectural units (e.g. the Romanesque ambo). Another important result of the project is the development of structured terminology via multilingual thesaurus (equivalence, associative and hierarchical relationships have been established among concepts). The aim of the article is to present an application of data processing in the field of digital art history and in the broader context of digital humanities.
|B. Debić, K. Aleksić-Maslać, P. Vranešić (Zagreb School of Economics and Management, Zagreb, Croatia)
Lessons from Developing and Delivering an Artificial Intelligence Course during the Covid-19 Pandemic
The Covid-19 pandemic has resulted in a major shift from classroom to online learning. In this paper we present the strategy we used to develop a course for teaching the Introduction to Artificial Intelligence course at the Zagreb School of Economics and management under the changed circumstances. We have analyzed and compared a number open source tools and products on the market and weaved them into a fully digital classroom. We have evaluated student satisfaction and compared learning outcomes. Specifically we also present a number of approaches taken related specifically to the field of AI and the conducting of practical exercises using a cloud based approach. Our data shows that many of the tools adopted during Covid-19 should stay in use in post pandemic times.
|M. Gaborov, M. Kavalić, D. Kaurović, D. Glušac, M. Nikolić (Technical Faculty “Mihajlo Pupin", University of Novi Sad, Zrenjanin, Serbia)
The Impact of Internet Usage on Pupils Internet Safety in Primary and Secondary School
The aim of the research refers to the frequency of experiencing some form of electronic violence and mechanisms for protecting pupils on the Internet. Using a random sampling method, 744 subjects aged 11 to 18 years were examined. The sample in the research is designed to include upper elementary school pupils and secondary school pupils like vocational schools and gymnasiums on the territory of the Republic of Serbia. The research is conducted through an online questionnaire „Safe Internet usage among pupils“ created for the purposes of the research, as well as the standardized The School Refusal Assessment Scale-Revised (SRAS-R) questionnaire developed by Christopher Kearney and Wendy Silverman. It is a psychological assessment tool designed to evaluate school refusal disorder symptoms in pupils and identify their reasons for avoiding school. It was found that there is a statistically significant correlation between cyber bullying and students' Internet usage habits with feelings about school and parental control of pupils. The results of this research give us an insight into the real state of the presence of violence on the Internet among pupils, as the connection of violence with other aspects of life.
|T. Babić, Z. Musa (Algebra University College, Zagreb, Croatia)
Knowledge Transfer through Recognition and Implementation of the Transformational Team Member Role
Knowledge transfer, explicit, as well as tacit, can be singled out as a key and crucial determinant of the modern knowledge economy. In global business organizations, success depends on quality, and often, rapid knowledge transfer. People who are often engaged, usually without official responsibility, bring great value through their engagement in such activities and can be determined as transformational team members. Various organizations ranging from academic, medical, corporate to the military, benefit from team members who can recognize the need for a change and instigate the process of acquiring new knowledge and its incorporation into everyday functioning within the team. In this article, the scope of the real situation within various organizations is presented, through demonstration of the actual status of transformational team members, the structure that surrounds them, and the level on which their role is structured, defined, and institutionalized within the organization. Many organizations recognize the need for transformational team members but at the same time, they fail to recognize and structuralize the institution of transformational team members, their activities and provide an environment in which they can strive.
|T. Babić, S. Grgić, Z. Kunić (Algebra University College, Zagreb, Croatia)
The Relationship between Students' Evaluation of Teachers' Performance Quality and Students’ Satisfaction with Online Live Model of Teaching
This study aims at determining the impact of students' satisfaction with teachers' and assistants' overall teaching performance on students’ satisfaction with the online live model of teaching during the COVID-19 pandemic in a private Algebra University College in Croatia. Student satisfaction is one of the most important, but also critical, objectives in higher education institutions. Institutions that fail to attain student satisfaction risk their reputation, reduced recruitment of new students, and negative effect on existing students' academic performance. For the purposes of this study, a quantitative method was used in examining the hypothesis. A survey questionnaire was used for data collection. 1029 students of undergraduate and graduate study programs at the Algebra University College participated in this study, and 4348 fully completed questionnaires concerning 111 courses were processed. The defined main objectives are students' satisfaction with teachers' overall teaching performance, students' satisfaction with the online live model of teaching during the COVID-19 pandemic, and students’ expectations that in such a model of teaching they will succeed in achieving the set learning outcomes. The findings show the existence of relationships between students' evaluation of teachers' and assistants' performance quality and students’ satisfaction with the online live model of teaching.
|T. Babić, S. Grgić (Algebra University College, Zagreb, Croatia)
The Quality Assurance System and Teacher Support for the Online Live Model of Teaching during the Covid-19 Pandemic
When, at the beginning of the summer semester of the academic year 2019/2020, the COVID-19 pandemic took a swing in the whole world, Croatia was no exception. The teachers and students were instantly forced to adapt to the remote model of teaching. At Algebra University College, online classes were conducted through the Online Live Model of teaching, which not only required students' adaptation, but also posed challenge to the teachers. Teachers had the support of the higher education institution through professional services, such as technical support, but also the department for supporting the quality of teaching. A survey was conducted, based on teachers' feedback, to maintain the quality of teaching and detect the endangered segments of teaching, with 78 participating teachers and assistants. The main objectives are defined as detection of the level of teaching quality and teaching segments that are most endangered in this model of teaching. The results of the research showed that although teachers consider the quality of teaching to be adequate in the given circumstances, they consider interactivity and active participation as the most endangered segments in the Online Live Model of teaching.
|M. Tucaković, B. Marijanović (University of Zagreb Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, Zagreb, Croatia), J. Petrak (University of Zagreb School of Medicine, Zagreb, Croatia)
The Cost of Open-Access Publishing in an Engineering Academic Community: A Study of Zagreb Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing
Since the early 1990s, open access (OA) scholarly publishing has become widespread in the international scientific community. Although there are numerous benefits of OA publishing, researchers experience a number of disadvantages related to the transition to the OA model. Article processing charges (APCs) paid by authors/institutions have become a key mechanism for funding full OA (the gold OA model). This paper addresses the issue of OA publication costs and attempts to find out what financial resources have been used by researchers at the University of Zagreb, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing for publishing in gold OA journals over the last five years. The published OA articles indexed in the Web of Science Core Collection for the period from 2016 to 2020 were analysed. A quantitative analysis of Journal Citation Reports metrics for 163 journals was conducted to identify a relationship between APCs and journal rankings. In addition, a detailed study of gold OA articles was carried out by examining the websites of 31 publishers and identifying APCs for 64 journals. Funding and collaboration models were extracted for 174 gold OA articles as they provide insight into the extent of national funding in relation to financing based on international collaboration. Finally, a calculation of invested funds over the last five years is presented.
|K. Zdravkova (University Ss Cyril and Methodius, Skopje, Macedonia), V. Krasniqi ( , , Kosovo)
Inclusive Higher Education during the Covid-19 Pandemic
The Covid-19 pandemic caused a sudden shift towards online teaching, learning, and assessment, which was troublesome for both teachers and students. The most affected were the students with various disabilities, whose inclusive options provided in the classroom were no longer available at home. Many socially responsible universities managed to support the education for differently abled students enabling various forms of alternative activities that partially or completely bypass their problems. This paper reviews the accessibility options of operating systems, learning management systems and especially assistive technologies that facilitate the education of impaired students. They cover the add-ons and tools for vision and hearing impairment. Teaching, learning and assessment are carefully examined for both disabilities. Particular attention is paid to practical work, which is a compulsory part of many higher education courses. The paper concludes with the major barriers of online higher education, which should during Covid-19 pandemic enable an equal right to all the students, regardless of their physical and mental disabilities.
|P. Cuculić (Visoko učilište Algebra, Zagreb, Croatia)
Using ICT in Foreign Language Teaching and Learning: from Traditional to Virtual Classroom
Language teaching and learning is a dynamic process that is marked with continuous interaction between the participants. Having employed adequate teaching methods, the lecturer can create a quality environment for teaching thus enabling students to be motivated, learn at an adequate pace and achieve the desired learning outcomes. Foreign language teaching and learning have been closely tied to using ICT tools in classrooms for many years. ICT tools facilitate foreign language teaching, since teachers have a wide array of tools that they can integrate into their lessons, ranging from audiovisual tools, interactive quizzes, presentation tools, interactive whiteboards, mobile applications etc. With the change of setting from the onsite classroom to the online classroom in 2020, ICT tools have adopted an even more important role than they had in the traditional teaching and learning process in the classroom. ICT tools have thus evolved from the means of facilitating the teaching and learning into the medium where teaching and learning take place. The aim of this paper, therefore, is to explore the evolution of the use of ICT tools from the traditional classroom setting to virtual classrooms, and finally, to examine the attitudes of foreign language learners towards language learning in virtual classrooms.
|P. Voštinár (Matej Bel University, Banská Bystrica, Slovakia)
EduScrum method for teaching programming microcontroller Arduino
Microcontroller Arduino is nowadays very popular teaching hardware for Computer science in Slovak republic. This contribution deals with our experience with teaching arduino through EduScrum teaching method in distance learning during pandemic situation of Covid-19.
|R. Jukić (Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences in Osijek, Osijek, Croatia), T. Škojo (The Academy of Arts and Culture in Osijek, Osijek, Croatia)
The Educational Needs of the Alpha Generation
Sociologists, pedagogues and psychologists are constantly rethinking the characteristics of the Alpha generation -children born between 2010 and 2025. Technology follows them, shapes and marks them, they are growing up to be the most technologically "skilled" and most educated generation ever. Although Marc Prensky introduced the concept of digital natives back in 2001, it seems that the Alphas are the first true digital natives to understand and speak the original language of digital technology. Educators now face the challenge of adapting the ways they interact and communicate with Alphas, and of adapting the educational system. The assessment of the educational needs of new generations using the criteria and logic of a system that is already obsolete is a complete failure. We must anticipate changes in education at the level of digitalization, virtualization, gamification of teaching, but also at the content level. The European Commission has invited EU members to a strategic dialogue in order to prepare a proposal for a recommendation for successful digital education by 2022. Educational professionals need to communicate with the IT sector, find a common language and integrate it into the curriculum components. The paper presents the results of a qualitative analysis of 20 semi -structured interviews in which 10 ICT experts and 10 university pedagogues consider the issues of the future of the educational system as well as the integration of technology into the teaching process. Research results indicate a partial agreement in the vision of the future of computers in education, but also a different view of the role of the educational system, which further emphasizes the need for a dialogue in considering this topic.
|T. Orehovački (Faculty of Informatics, Juraj Dobrila University of Pula, Pula, Croatia), S. Babić (Polytechnic of Rijeka, Rijeka, Croatia), D. Etinger (Faculty of Informatics, Juraj Dobrila University of Pula, Pula, Croatia)
Perceived Quality of Software Used for Distance Learning During COVID-19 Pandemic
COVID-19 pandemic has irreversibly changed all aspects of human endeavors, and learning is not an exception. Although distance learning has been used as a backbone for many courses and even studies, during the last year all teachers and students worldwide had to employ at least one piece of software for educational purposes. Empirical study presented in this paper examines quality of the software that was most commonly used for delivering lectures and conducting examinations, as perceived by university students. Reported findings uncovered pros and cons of evaluated software as well as provided guidelines for improving their quality.
|T. Mladenova, Y. Kalmukov, I. Valova (University of Ruse, Ruse, Bulgaria)
Research on Students’ Opinion on the Method of Presenting Teaching Materials
Distance learning has been an area of scientific interest long before the Covid-19 pandemic. The electronic learning (e-Learning) makes the learning process easier more accessible. That is due to the extremely reduced time for communication between participants; the ability to learn anytime, anywhere; the added interactivity; the possibilities for self-control and self-evaluation.
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the students’ opinion about the possibility of blending traditional onsite learning with e-learning (i.e. the so-called blended learning), and to evaluate their willingness and readiness to use electronic teaching materials, such as video and audio lectures, and interactive documents. The analysis has been conducted with а survey among 200 university and high school students studying IT-related courses. The questionnaire was held in January 2020, just before the Covid pandemic, and reflects the students’ attitude and their readiness, but not their practical experience.
Among the main goals of the survey is to evaluate: to what extent the audio, video, and multimedia materials increase the students’ motivation; which are the most useful and suitable presentation materials; are students willing to prepare in advance; how effective the asynchronous learning with video lectures is in respect to traditional face-to-face synchronous learning; what role do the social networks have in the learning process; and others.
Results show that the students accurately find the advantages and disadvantages of both learning methods and think that the most effective, flexible, and motivating approach is the blended learning method, which combines the traditional onsite education and e-Learning.
|M. Odak, A. Miljko, T. Papac (University of Mostar, Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina)
Digital Transformation in Covid-19 Pandemic – What We Learned and How to Utilize What Was Learned
With the arrival of COVID-19 pandemic in March of 2020. the first lockdown and closing of schools and faculties occured. Educational institutions had to find a solution overnight. To ensure the continuity of schooling was a great challenge, the strategy of the faculties has only indicated digital transformation, and a small number of faculty staff was ready to face this new situation (according to the research had already been carried out). Teachers that had already used digital technologies and e-learning found it easier to form their classes in online environment that they were already familiar with. But those teachers that have never done so, found themselves facing a great challenge. Faced with the inability to hold classes in a traditional classroom way, they were challenged to quickly transition to online environment and ensure the completion of the academic year. With the arrival of the new academic year, the return to the classic way of classes was expected, but this did not completely occur. The pandemic did not cease and again higher education institutions face closing and classes are more and more held remotely. Levels of preparation and experience of teachers and students at the University of Mostar differ greatly. This paper has a goal of presenting experiences and needs of the teachers of the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences and ascertaining how these experiences can be, and how much they have been used relating to the situation we find ourselves in again.
|L. Zlatić, B. Šlibar, N. Begičević Ređep (University of Zagreb, Faculty of Organization and Informatics, Varaždin, Croatia)
Decision Making Styles in Higher Education Institutions: Systematic Literature Review
Higher education institutions (HEIs) face many challenges in an increasingly complex and turbulent environment. Academic managers are becoming leaders of change in their institutions and their roles are increasingly more challenging. Their managers' decisions and decision-making styles (DMS) directly affect the organization's efficiency, adaptability, employee satisfaction, and student academic performance. Since a DMS of decision maker forms the backbone of effective decision-making (DM), it is extremely important to analyze DMS of an academic managers. Therefore, this paper aimed to present findings of relevant studies on the DMS used in HEIs as well as the consequences of their usage. To emphasize the need of conducting further research on academic managers' DMS in conditions of unstable environment, the systematic literature review (SLR) is conducted and presented in the paper.
|G. Đambić, T. Keščec, D. Kučak (Visoko učilište Algebra, Zagreb, Croatia)
A Blended Learning with Gamification Approach for Teaching Programming Courses in Higher Education
This paper is a result of three different needs that became apparent and unavoidable during the COVID 19 pandemic at our institution. Further exploration revealed that for each of the needs, there is a huge amount of research papers, thus validating the approach taken by this paper. First need is for blended learning. Old school approach where teacher instructs from a cathedra that worked for centuries should be replaced either completely or partially with online learning content, due to new natural media for learning – Internet. Second need is a gamification. Many research papers show that newer generations of students lose their attention and motivation for learning more quickly than previous, especially if the topic is difficult. To counteract this, many gamification efforts have been explored. Lastly, programming is difficult for students to learn, so new teaching techniques are always welcome to keep students motivated. With COVID 19 situation where live teaching becomes impossible and where many institutions were forced to migrate online, these needs became paramount very quickly. Based on said, this paper proposes a blended learning component that complements existing methods of online teaching and that also contains gamification elements. A way of transferring curriculum into actionable items of proposed system is defined, as well as a system itself. Authors hope that this approach will lead students to better understanding of programming topics, lower dropout rates and higher satisfaction in learning.
|A. Vrcelj (Construction Technical School Rijeka, Rijeka, Croatia), N. Hoić-Božić, M. Holenko Dlab (Department of Informatics, University of Rijeka, Rijeka, Croatia)
Using Digital Tools for Gamification in Schools
Gamification in education represents the application of game design elements and game principles in teaching to increase student motivation and engagement. Although it is important to motivate students in classroom teaching, it is even more important in online or hybrid teaching models that are increasingly being implemented nowadays due to the COVID-19 pandemic situation.
Gamification can be used in education at different levels, from primary and secondary schools to universities. The analysis of literature on the use of gamification in Croatian education showed that it is more present in university education and less in primary and secondary schools. Nevertheless, experience shows that games and many digital tools are used in schools for the purpose of gamification, although there is a gap in the literature on this topic.
The research presented in this paper is a work-in-progress on the use of gamification in education. The paper gives an overview of digital tools used for gamification in schools to increase students’ motivation and the quality of teaching. Systematic research on gamification should be continued to propose appropriate pedagogical-technological frameworks that facilitate the application of gamification in schools.
|T. Georgiev (University of Ruse, Ruse, Bulgaria)
From Mobile Learning to Mobile Research
The report examines the possibilities and the challenges of transition from mobile learning to mobile research in different stages of education – from primary school through secondary school to university. Sensors in modern smartphones, as well as existing mobile applications for collecting experimental data are analysed. It is stated how students from primary and secondary school could use mobile devices during the educational process and conduct some experiments with them, and this way to increase their motivation for learning. In the next stage, the mobile devices could be used by students in higher education to conduct a variety of research activities. Last but not least, the capabilities of modern mobile devices could be used for research in various business areas. At the end of this paper, relevant conclusions and recommendations for the use of mobile devices as research tools are made.
|T. Babic, L. Kolar, M. Miličević (Algebra University College, Zagreb, Croatia)
Individual, Cooperative and Collaborative Learning and Students’ Perceptions of Their Impact on Their Own Study Performance
Learning allows people the acquisition of something new; knowledge, skills, or deepening understanding. The digital age has made knowledge and information more accessible. At the same time, those changes posed challenges in front of teaching practices and pedagogies; although access to information is easier, users are often no more than passive consumers. The preparation process of students, to be full-fledged members of the knowledge society, implies the development of lifelong learning skills and critical thinking in accessing and assessing information. Previous research shows that the best learning outcomes are achieved through active participation, connectivism and teamwork, while "playfully" learning and engaging in activities they enjoy. The purpose of research conducted on a sample of 51 undergraduate design students of the Algebra University College was to examine whether students prefer collaborative, cooperative, or independent learning, and which of the following approaches helps to increase their self-actualization, social skills and the achievement of better study results. The research was conducted during the winter semester of the academic year 2020/2021.
|D. Vincek (Ante Kovačić elementary school, Zlatar, Croatia)
Instagram as Emotional and Intellectual Motivation for Understanding Sections of Printed and Digital Magazines
Over 60 percent of work time of elementary school librarians is assigned to direct educational work. The aim of the previous Teaching plan and program for school librarians and today’s inter-subject curriculum is for the students to acquire IT, information and media literacy skills. One of the examples of thisis the creation of a school magazine. The research conducted five years ago showed that the students fail to completely grasp the term section. This is why the author of this paper used the Instagram social network to teach this term through the activities in the school library, using a new teaching concept. The students used descriptions and hashtags and were emotionally and intellectually motivated to produce a printed and digital school magazinewith content-appropriate sections.
|Š. Tevžič, Z. Klemenc Ketiš, A. Poplas Susič, U. Zafošnik (Community Health Centre Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia), P. Selič, Š. Mirošević (University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Medicine, Ljubljana, Slovenia), N. Ružić Gorenjec (Community Health Centre Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia)
Use of augmented reality in teaching management of anaphylactic shock to family doctors
Augmented reality (AR) is one of the emerging technologies of today. It has the potential to offer a novel approach to medical training that supplements conventional training methods with gamification and a more interactive learning experience. In emergency medicine, AR has benefits and feasibility in the clinical care of patients, in operating rooms and inpatient facilities, and in the education and training of emergency care providers. To further explore the role of AR in teaching management of anaphylactic shock to family doctors a single-blinded, randomized controlled trial will be conducted. All participants will be involved in a one-day education program, consisting of lectures and skills practice. The test group will additionally engage in education about anaphylactic shock in augmented reality. The baseline will be assessed in a learning environment through a simulation based on the developed scenario. The simulation will be independently assessed with a developed evaluation scale by three experts. Participants will perform the simulation again after the intervention. After 1 and 12 months a simulation will be repeated in the participants’ workplace with a standardized patient. We expect to prove that augmented reality is an efficient educational tool for emergency care at the primary health care level.
|A. Vragović (III. osnovna škola Varaždin, Varaždin, Croatia)
Izazovi i poteškoće tijekom nastave na daljinu
Zbog izvanrednih okolnosti uzrokovanih pandemijom korona virusa prekinuta je klasična nastava i počela je provedba nastave na daljinu. U ovom radu se govori o izazovima i poteškoćama koji su se javljali tijekom nastave na daljinu. Početak nastave na daljinu bio je stresan za učitelje, učenike i roditelje. Preko nastave na daljinu učitelji su uspjeli održati obrazovni sustav, zadržati učenike na okupu, održati komunikaciju s učenicima i roditeljima, realizirati nastavne programa i ovladati informacijsko komunikacijskim tehnologijama. U vrlo kratkom vremenu ostvaren je veliki napredak u korištenju tehnologije. Organizirani su virtualni razredi u kojima učenici i svakom trenutku mogu kontaktirati učitelje. Prateći reakcije roditelja, učenika i učitelja vidljivo je da su svi imali određene probleme što je bilo i za očekivati jer je to bila velika promjena za sve. Cjelodnevni boravak pred računalom, pritisak, nesigurnost s IKT-e tehnologijom, loša komunikacija, samo su neki od problema koji su se javljali tijekom nastave na daljinu. U ovo suvremeno doba škola bi trebala biti mjesto gdje učenici provode svoj život kroz igru, učenje i druženje. Veselimo se povratku u takvu školu, a do tog vremena treba nam strpljenje, upornost i stručnost da bismo odgojno obrazovne aktivnosti mogli provoditi na što bolji način.
|I. Dubovečak (Eugen Kvaternik, Elementary school, Velika Gorica, Croatia)
Uloga informacijsko-komunikacijskih tehnologija na ishode učenja u nastavi Tjelesne i zdravstvene kulture
Život ljudi se u posljednjih 30-ak godina gotovo iz temelja, iako se čini ne baš primjetno, promijenio. Nema područja ljudskoga života, poslovnoga ili privatnoga, a posebno obrazovanja, učenja i poučavanja, koje se uslijed korištenja računala, mobitela, tableta i interneta nije vrlo značajno promijenilo. Obrazovni sustav škola, ali i učenici i učitelji, korištenjem moderne tehnologije, brže i motiviranije dolaze do znanstvenih i stručnih podataka potrebnih za nastavu i spoznavanje te brže i bolje ostvaruju zadane ishode učenja. Mobilni uređaji kao što su pametni telefoni i dlanovnici značajno su promijenili način na koji živimo, radimo, prikupljamo informacije i komuniciramo. Ne tako davno, 2014. godine procijenjeno je da će do 2020. godine, čak 90 % populacije starije od 6 godina imati mobilne uređaje (Wood, 2014). Sve više i više, dobna granica kada djeca počinju koristiti mobilne uređaje, smanjuje se. Mobilni uređaji prepoznati su kao jako korisni u praćenju zdravlja i promicanju aktivnog načina života. Findak navodi da je nastava Tjelesne i zdravstvene kulture važan element školovanja djeteta. Kaže da se nastavom TZK zadovoljavaju potrebe za kretanjem i igrom, a isto tako utječe na promjenu antropološkog statusa učenika i stvaranje navike za redovitim tjelesnim vježbanjem. U vremenima u kojima trenutno živimo, očit je stalan razvoj svih vrsta tehnologija, a posebno informacijsko-komunikacijske tehnologije (IKT) koja nam drastično mijenja i način života. Ključno je da učitelj TZK ostane u centru poučavanja, a da informacijske i komunikacijske tehnologije budu korištene kao pomoćna sredstva koja će olakšati prijenos znanja učenicima te uvažiti njihove razlike.
|T. Pavičić Zajec, T. Ređep (Prva osnovna škola Varaždin, Varaždin, Croatia)
Dugoročnost primjene informacijsko komunikacijske tehnologije na uspjeh u nastavi matematike
Poznato je da kod većine djece matematika kao nastavni predmet ne izaziva previše ugodne asocijacije ni emocije, već naprotiv: nelagodu, znojenje dlanova, čak i frustracije. Dostupnost IKT-a promijenilo je način učenja i poučavanja u matematici. U ovome radu opisano je istraživanje čije je cilj bio provjeriti učinkovitost korištenja novih tehnologija kao pomoćnog nastavnog sredstva u uvodnom i završnom dijelu sata nastave matematike, te na koji način one utječu na uspjeh učenika. T-testom za zavisne uzorke utvrđeno je da postoji statistički značajna razlika u prosječnoj zaključnoj ocjeni prethodne i tekuće godine za sve učenika zajedno. Učenici su u prethodnoj godini imali veću prosječnu zaključnu ocjenu (4,52) nego u tekućoj godini (4,38). Obzirom da je istraživanje provedeno početkom školske godine 2015./2016, ove školske godine se na istom uzorku ispitanika anketnim upitnikom provjerila relevantnost prethodno dobivenih rezultata. Na temelju dobivenih rezultata možemo zaključiti da neovisno o prethodno provedenoj aktivnosti primjene tableta u nastavi matematike, to nije dugoročno doprinijelo boljem uspjehu učenika. Učenici kao najveći razlog tome vide u težini i opsegu gradiva. Dobiveni rezultati ukazuju da nije postignuta dugoročna učinkovitosti korištenja IKT-a.
|B. Raičković, B. Musović (IV. osnovna škola Bjelovar, Bjelovar, Croatia)
Planiranje, provedba i evaluacija velikih projekata na primjeru projekta Drvokod
Ovaj stručni rad temelji se na provođenju velikih višegodišnjih projekata, kao što je projekt Drvokod u kojega je uključeno nekoliko desetaka škola, mentora i učenika, rasprostranjenim na cijelom teritoriju države. Rad se odnosi na planiranje, provođenje i evaluaciju, te isto tako na usavršavanje i nadgradnju u budućim verzijama.
Zadavanje ciljeva i zadataka je jedan od najvažnijih aspekata projekta, no međutim planiranje i provedba zauzimaju važno mjesto. To se najviše odražava u velikim projektima koji se izvode na više međusobno udaljenih lokacija.
U radu su iznesene smjernice za rad, tehnička priprema, permanentno praćenje te evaluacija. Naravno i mnogobrojni problemi koji su proizašli prilikom same provedbe.
Zasigurno veliki i višegodišnji projekti se ne bi mogli zamisliti bez IKT -a, te korištenja mnogobrojnih alata i aplikacija.
Kako se većina projekata odvija posredstvom Interneta, omogućena je velika mogućnost moderiranja u realnom vremenu pa tako i vrlo vrijedna analitika same provedbeprojekta.
Stručni rad se temelji na stvarnim podatcima.
|R. Soldo (Strojarska tehnička škola Fausta Vrančića, Zagreb, Croatia), N. Maras (Učiteljski fakultet Sveučilišta u Zagrebu, Zagreb, Croatia)
Projektno učenje kao prediktor akademskog postignuća u nastavi matematike
Ovim istraživanjem pokazalo se kako projektno učenje temeljeno na suvremenim tehnologijama uz pedagošku metodu PBL (“Project base learning” odnosno
“Projektno bazirano učenje“) utječe na akademsko postignuće učenika u nastavi matematike. U istraživanju je sudjelovalo 153 učenika iz dvije srednje strukovne škole u
Gradu Zagrebu, primijenjen je eksperimentalni nacrt istraživanja na dvije skupine ispitanika. Kontrolnu skupinu su činila 83 učenika, koji nisu koristili metodu PBL u
nastavi matematike, dok je 70 učenika činilo eksperimentalnu skupinu i sudjelovalo u projektnom učenju temeljenom na suvremenim tehnologijama uz pedagošku metodu PBL. Rezultati istraživanja pokazuju kako projektno bazirano učenje (PBL) povećava akademski uspjeh učenika u nastavi matematike.
|D. Kager (OŠ Eugena Kvaternika, Velika Gorica, Croatia)
Multidisciplinarna implementacija umjetne inteligencije u sustav osnovnoškolskog obrazovanja
Umjetna inteligencija u posljednje vrijeme doživljava svoj procvat u raznim područjima ljudskog života i djelovanja. S obzirom na brzinu razvoja i sveobuhvatnost primjene ove tehnologije, javlja se i potreba za njezinom implementacijom u sustav osnovnoškolskog obrazovanja s ciljem stjecanja potrebnih vještina i znanja učenika kako bi bili spremni odgovoriti na zahtjeve koje će pred njih postaviti tržište rada u bliskoj budućnosti. Implementacija umjetne inteligencije u obrazovanje ima dvostruku ulogu - poučavanje UZ umjetnu inteligenciju i poučavanje ZA umjetnu inteligenciju. Ovaj rad prikazat će oba moguća načina implementacije umjetne inteligencije u osnovnoškolsko obrazovanje kroz primjere dobre prakse te kratki prikaz odabranih aplikacija i alata.
|M. Novakovic (Elenentary school Kuršanec, Čakovec, Croatia)
Korištenje informatičkih tehnologija u srednjoškolskoj nastavi fizike
Fizika kao znanost nastala je tako što su ljudi promatrali različite pojave u svijetu koji nas okružuje i na temelju tih pojava izvodili fizikalne zakone. Napretkom tehnologije povećala su se znanja iz fizike no i dalje je opažanje pojava pomoću pokusa najvažniji način na koji se učenici u školama upoznaju sa zakonima fizike. Cilj ovog rada je upoznati nastavnike s informatičkom tehnologijom koja olakšava izvođenje nastave fizike u srednjoj školi. Iako je pokus uživo još uvijek najbolji način za izvođenje nastave, u nekim se situacijama (nedostatak opreme, nastava na daljinu...) on ne može izvesti te je potrebno koristiti različite informatičke alate kako bi se ti pokusi dočarali. Tu se ponajprije misli na animacije, računalne simulacije i snimke pokusa. Drugi način korištenja informatičke tehnologije u nastavi fizike uključuje nastavu i pokuse koji se mogu izvesti u razredu. Pametni telefoni danas imaju brojne mogućnosti koje se mogu kreativno iskoristiti u nastavi fizike. Učenici na taj način mogu samostalno istraživati zakone fizike. Uz pametne mobitele postoje i uređaji koji mogu pomoći u izvođenju pokusa. To su svakako osobno računalo, različita mikro-računala i sl..
|M. Mirković (Tehnička škola Požega, Požega, Croatia)
Riznica kreativne međunarodne suradnje u Erasmus projektima školskog partnerstva
Tehnička škola u Požegi sudjeluje u dva Erasmus+ KA2 projekta školskog partnerstva: "Together in Environmental Solutions Learning Activities" (TESLA) i "With the Skills of the Future for a Successful Job and Life" (SKILLS).
Projekt TESLA potaknuti će svijest učenika o održivom razvoju korištenjem obnovljivih izvora energije i savjesnoj uporabi energije. Osnažiti će suradnja srednjih škola i institucija važnih za energiju i ekologiju te razmjena dobre prakse na europskoj razini.
Projekt SKILLS osposobiti će učenike za razvijanje originalnih rješenja i ideja. Kvalitete koje će učenici steći preklapaju se sa sposobnostima koje zahtijeva poslovni svijet. Projekt je osmišljen s ciljem da poboljša stjecanje osnovnih vještina učenika uz komponente projektnog učenja.
Projekti omogućuju suradnju škole sa partnerskim školama iz šest zemalja Europske unije putem mobilnosti učenika i nastavnika te online aktivnosti putem eTwinning projekata.
Partneri osmišljavaju radionice s primjenom kreativnih metoda i tehnika poučavanja i učenja uz zanimljive aktivnosti za učenike ali i edukacije za nastavnike. U stjecanju vještina i ključnih kompetencija pomažu digitalne tehnologije i alati.
Međunarodna suradnja pomaže školama da poboljšaju iskustvo poučavanja učenika vještinama koje će im pomoći u obrazovanju, radu i društvu. Aktivnosti u projektu potiču učeničku maštu, kreativnost, pronalaženje novih rješenja uz učenje o sebi, drugima i okolini.
|M. Škarica (Srednja škola Ivan Švear, Ivanić-Grad, Croatia), M. Ašenbrener Katić, V. Miletić (Sveučilište u Rijeci, Odjel za informatiku, Rijeka, Croatia)
Primjena kviza u nastavi matematike
Upotreba informacijsko-komunikacijske tehnologije (skraćeno IKT) neizostavna je u suvremenim oblicima učenja i poučavanja te podrazumijeva transfer i upotrebu svih vrsta informacija i sva tehnička sredstva koja omogućavaju korisnicima da koriste informacije te komuniciraju. Nastava postaje zanimljiva, raznolika, dinamična, inovativna i kreativna kada nastavnik uz standardne metoda poučavanja koristi i IKT.
U ovom radu prikazana je upotreba informacijsko-komunikacijske tehnologije (IKT) u nastavi matematike sa svrhom postizanja boljeg uspjeha i motivacije kod učenika. Prikazana je primjena alata Quizizz na odabranu nastavnu jedinicu iz matematike u srednjoj školi Ivan Švear u Ivanić-Gradu. Također prikazani su i rezultati ankete provedene nakon primjene kviza u nastavi matematike. Pokazalo se da je kviz odlična motivacijska metoda, a sam alat Quizizz vrlo jednostavan za korištenje kako nastavniku tako i učenicima.
|M. Šitum (OŠ Granešina, Zagreb, Croatia)
Mogućnosti primjene računalnih oblaka u obrazovanju
Računalni oblak je relativno nov pojam, a temelji se na desetljećima istraživanja u virtualizaciji, distribuciji i osnovi računalstva, te u novije vrijeme umrežavanja weba i softverskih usluga. U radu se raspravlja o pojmu računalstva u oblacima, neka od pitanja koja se pokušavaju riješiti, a u vezi s temom istraživanja su "oblak" i implementacija dostupna danas. Sukus svega je implementacija aplikacija računalnih oblaka u osnovnoškolsko obrazovanje te njegove prednosti i nedostaci kao i same mogućnosti primjene. Dati su primjeri kako i na koji način sat uz pomoć računalnog oblaka može biti produktivan kao i koje oblake možemo koristiti i koristimo u nastavi već danas. U zaključku rada slijedi kratak osvrt na budućnost tehnologije računalnih oblaka.
|S. Babić (Polytechnic of Rijeka, Rijeka, Croatia), D. Bjelanović ( Pećine Elementary School, Rijeka, Croatia), M. Čičin-Šain (Cybernetics Society Rijeka, Rijeka, Croatia)
Programming and Mathematics through Game
A game plays a very important role to children. Everything that is done through the game is easier to accept and longer to remember. This paper describes a method that, although it originated forty years ago, can provide surprisingly a lot to today’s generation of students. The method helps in the development of computational thinking and computer-free programming in children at early school age. In particular, in this paper, the examples are given on how to use methods to realize and carry out learning outcomes according to the curriculum for the 1st grade of primary school and present a real example of their use in mathematics classes in teaching practice. The results of this work can be an incentive to all of those whose interest is the further development of learning programming and mathematics through a game in young children.
|E. Krelja Kurelović, M. Jerončić, J. Tomljanović (Veleučilište u Rijeci, Rijeka, Croatia)
Od projektne nastave s Arduinom do modela pametne kuće
Arduino platforma u čijem je središtu programabilni mikrokontroler ima svoju primjenu u raznim tehničkim područjima i informatici, a jednako je vole profesionalci, hobisti i entuzijasti. Arduino pronalazi svoje mjesto i u obrazovanju, pogotovo u STEM području, jer omogućuje inovativno poučavanje i učenje, potiče kreativnost i rješavanje problema. Obrazovanje IT stručnjaka veliki je izazov zbog brzog razvoja tehnologije, pa neka znanja brzo zastarijevaju. U ovom radu opisat će se način organiziranja projektne nastave u kojoj su korišteni Arduino RFID kompleti, te izazovi koje takva nastava stavlja pred nastavnika i studente. Glavni cilj ovakve nastave je transfer teorijskih znanja u praksu, razvoj sistemskog mišljenja i projektnog pristupa. Studentima je osigurano okruženje u kojem će primijeniti stečena znanja i vještine, te steći nova kroz aktivno i suradničko učenje. Pošto je Arduino mikrokontroler sposoban komunicirati s okolinom i obrađivati podatke koristi se za razvoj sustava interneta stvari. Kao primjer, predstavit će se izrađeni model pametne kuće u čijoj je realizaciji korištena Arduino platforma, te omogućila da se skup elektroničkih i softverskih komponenti poveže u složenije cjeline i time realiziraju određene funkcionalnosti pametne kuće.
|K. Šamec (INFODATA, Zagreb, Croatia), M. Nikitović, A. Mahmutović (Visoka škola za informacijske tehnologije, Zagreb, Croatia)
Primjena Riskmanagenable softvera u nastavi kolegija Vođenje projekata i dokumentacija
Upravljanje rizicima je vrlo važan segment Upravljanja projektima. Poznato je ako nema rizika, onda nije riječ o projektu. Rizik s kojim nismo računali, odnosno koji nismo identificirali, vrlo često je najopasniji rizik. Iz tog je razloga u nastavi upravljanja rizicima vrlo važno studentima, osim teoretskih premisa, omogućiti da na konkretan način simuliraju matricu rizika na izabranom projektnom okviru. U radu je prikazano upravljanje rizicima matricom 5x5 softverom Riskmanagenable na primjeru potencijalnih rizika uporabe pisača i MPF uređaja u mrežnom radu. Softver je izabran jer osim komercijalne verzije (Universal Edition) ima i slobodnu verziju (Free Edition) sa unosom do 15 potencijalnih rizika, što je više nego dovoljno u radu sa studentima. Temeljni uvjet za izbor softvera je bio kriterij da bude na EXCEL platformi, obzirom da je studentima bilo kojeg studija, to više nego poznata platforma.
|M. Božurić, R. Bogut, J. Lozar (Elektrotehnička škola, Zagreb, Croatia)
Objektno orijentiran koncept programiranja u interaktivnom grafičkom okruženju
Članak opisuje korištenje Alice 3 programskog jezika s interaktivnim grafičkim sučeljem za učenje programiranja u izvannastavnim aktivnostima u dvjema srednjim školama čiji se učenici obrazuju za različita zanimanja. Programiranje i dizajniranje u grafičkom virtualnom okruženju interaktivan je i zabavan pristup razvoja algoritamskog načina razmišljanja s naglaskom na objektno usmjerene koncepte gdje učenici kroz igru, bez prethodnog iskustva u programiranju mogu razvijati logiku programiranja i stvarati algoritamska rješenja čije rezultate mogu vidjeti u realnom vremenu. Članak prikazuje utjecaj znanja i vještina usvojenih programiranjem u interaktivnom grafičkom okruženju na ostvarene ishode u programskim jezicima koji su dio redovnog nastavnog programa. Opisano je u kojoj mjeri takva iskustva utječu i motiviraju učenike za nastavak programiranja i razvoj programskih rješenja u budućnosti te postoji li utjecaj programiranja u interaktivnom grafičkom sučelju na demistifikaciju programiranja i programskih jezika. Opisana iskustva i rezultati mogu imati pozitivan utjecaj na motivaciju i želju učenika za učenjem programiranja orijentiranog na objektne koncepte, neovisno od njihovog obrazovnog usmjerenja.
|M. Bilić, T. Babić (Visoko učilište Algebra, Zagreb, Croatia)
Govor tijela prilikom razgovora za posao
Kvalitetna je komunikacija izrazito je važan čimbenik, ne samo u privatnom, već i u poslovnom okruženju. Ljudi neprestano komuniciraju, a često se najveći dio komunikacije odvija bez riječi. Neverbalna komunikacija kao takva, svjesno se ili nesvjesno koristi kako bi se izrazile emocije, pokazali stavovi i osobine ličnosti. Ponekad ljudi kroz neverbalnu komunikaciju govore i suprotno od svojih riječi ili onoga što bi željeli. Odnosi se posebno na govor tijela jer podrazumijeva komuniciranje putem pokreta tijela, gesta, mimike i držanja tijela. S obzirom da većinu nesvjesnih poruka šaljemo upravo na taj način, neverbalna komunikacija izuzetno je važna u izgradnji naših odnosa. Ova tema osobito je važna za studente s obzirom na to da po završetku studija ulaze u poslovni svijet i potragu za željenim poslovima te u skladu s tim; poslovne intervjue odnosno razgovore za posao. Temeljna svrha ovoga rada je istaknuti važnost govora tijela prilikom razgovora za posao. U radu se pojašnjava razlika između verbalne i neverbalne komunikacije, vrste neverbalne komunikacije, te uloga i važnost govora tijela u uspješnom poslovnom pregovaranju. Opisuje se na koji način se određenim dijelom i pokretima tijela šalju različiti tipovi poruka, zone udaljenosti u komunikaciji te kako govor tijela utječe na poslovne ljude. Na kraju, u radu se zaključuje na koje se načine može pravilno koristiti govor tijela da bi budućem poslodavcu poslala željena neverbalna poruka te u kojoj mjeri fizičke odrednice stvaraju temelj za selekciju potencijalnih kandidata na razgovoru za posao.
|D. Vrbanc (Željeznička tehnička škola Moravice, Draganic, Croatia)
Nastava na daljinu uporabom OneNote-a i Teamsa
U radu je prikazan način nastave na daljinu uporabom Microsoftovih alata u OneNote-u, kao e-bilježnici, i Teamsu kao komunikacijskom konferencijskom alatu.U kratkim crtama opisan je OneNote. Objašnjene su prednosti i mane OneNote-a kao e-bilježnice prema vlastitoj subjektivnoj procjeni. Pokazan je način rada u OneNote-u kao svestranog alata, nastavnog pomagala/nastavnog sredstva, kojim se olakšava prikupljanje bilješki kao i zamjeni za tradicionalnu bilježnicu. Konferencijski i suradnički alat Teams je pokazan kao uglavnom komunikacijski alat u svrhu stvaranja dobre razredne atmosfere kroz nastavu na daljinu. Dobro razredno okruženje i stvaranje što prirodnijeg odnosa, sličnom onom u realnim uvjetima u razredu, opisano je kroz način izlaganja gradiva, komunikacije nastavnika s učenicima i učeničke međusobne komunikacije. Opisane su i najčešće poteškoće kod učenika i nastavnika u takvom online okruženju. U zadnjem dijelu rada pokazani su primjeri rada u OneNote-u kroz primjere rješavanja zadataka iz predmeta Osnove elektrotehnike za 1. razred zanimanja Tehničar za mehatroniku. Kao zaključak se navode vlastite procjene učinkovitosti nastave na daljinu kroz opisane alate i subjektivno vrjednovanje u odnosu na klasičnu razrednu nastavu.
|K. Blažeka (Tehnička škola Ruđera Boškovića, Zagreb, Croatia)
Digitalne učeničke mape na from.hr domeni
Usvajanje ishoda učenja tijekom svojeg školovanja učenici pokazuju i dokazuju na različite načine kroz usmena i pisana ispitivanja, pisanje seminarskih radova i referata, izradu prezentacija, praktičnih uradaka, programskih rješenja i dr. Vrlo se često radi o nekoj vrsti pisanog uratka. Dodatno, u uvjetima proglašavanja pandemije, odnosno prelaskom na model C nastave, učenici mnoge zadatke odrađuju kod kuće, te u, obično unaprijed propisanom roku, dostavljaju svoje radove na platformu ili šalju poveznice na svoj repozitorij. U radu se analizira iskustvo primjene jedne mogućnosti prezentiranja domaćih zadaća, rezultata rada kod kuće, seminarskih radova ili programskih uradaka, te drugih sličnih radova, pri čemu učenici svoje radove prezentiraju preko vlastitog mrežnog sjedišta, odnosno from.hr domene. Analizirane su značajke takvog načina prezentacije, navedena usporedba sa drugim načinima, predložene mogućnosti za poboljšanje. Zaključak je kako stvaranje vlastitih mrežnih sjedišta kao svojevrsnih portfelja (mapa) radova učenika tijekom srednjoškolskog obrazovanja ima dobrih strana, a polučuje i dobre rezultate u stjecanju kvalitetnije informacijske pismenosti.
|Z. Balaž, A. Jelić (Tehničko veleučilište Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia)
Promethee metoda i alati kognitivne kibernetike za inteligentne sustave
Brzina razvoja i mogućnosti inteligentnih tehnologija pomoću računala učvršćuju integraciju čovjeka i tehnologije. Takva „suradnja“ poboljšava niz procesa kroz obradu, pohranu i razmjene relevantnih podatke. Primjeri u industriji, edukaciji, administraciji i svakodnevnom životu potvrđuju totalno kibernetičko trenutno djelovanje. Kognitivna kibernetika koncepta „Big Data“ oslonjena na „Promethee“ metodu, (Preference Ranking Organization METHod for Enrichment Evaluations) poslužila je u provedbi nastave za šest predmeta elektrotehničke grupe na Strojarskoj tehničkoj školi Fausta Vrančića, i na kolegiju Inteligentni sustavi Elektrotehničkog odjela Tehničkog veleučilišta u Zagrebu. Rad prikazuje provedenu nastavu primjenom novih alata i metoda vođenog učenja, (Leading/Lerning), u školi i na daljinu, (online). Promethee metoda je odmah po svojem otkriću, (1982. Jean-Pierre Brans), usvojena i primijenjena u zdravstvu. Služi za višekriterijsko odlučivanje u skupu ponuđenih izbora sa svojim značajkama koje nisu uvijek sve potpuno prepoznatljive. Primijenjena na obrazovanje i edukacije kao sustave s karakteristikama složenosti, stabilnosti i prilagodljivosti, učinkovito pomaže donošenjem odluka pri sjecanju znanja. Prednost joj je da analizom više kriterijskog odlučivanja, (MCDA- Multi Criteria Decision Analysis), prikaz „ispravne“ odluke ponudi kroz alternative od kojih se izabire najbolja. Za brzo razumijevanje problema vizualizacijom uporabljeni su alati Visual PROMETHEE s grafičkom analizom GAIA, (Graphical Analysis for Interactive Aid).
|I. Ružić, S. Stričak (I. OŠ Čakovec, Čakovec, Croatia)
ARTIE: Umjetna inteligencija u osnovnoškolskom obrazovanju - izazovi i mogućnosti novog doba: razvoj kurikuluma, priručnika za učitelje i obrazovnih materijala za učenike u osnovnoškolskom obrazovanju
“ARTIE: Umjetna inteligencija u osnovnoškolskom obrazovanju - izazovi i mogućnosti novog doba: razvoj kurikuluma, priručnika za učitelje i obrazovnih materijala za učenike u osnovnoškolskom obrazovanju” je dvogodišnje međunarodno strateško partnerstvo triju škola i dviju neprofitnih organizacija koje usko surađuju s obrazovnim sustavom, pružaju podršku i sudjeluju u razvoju obrazovnih materijala: I. osnovna škola Čakovec (CRO), Agrupamento de Escolas do Barreiro (PT), I Spoleczna Szkola
Podstawowa im. Unii Europejskiej w Zamosciu (PL), Hrvatski robotički savez (CRO) i Nefinia (NE).
U današnjem hiperpovezanom svijetu umjetna inteligencija vitalna je kompetencija, posebno za djecu i mlade. Djeca i mladi moraju razumjeti što se nalazi iza zaslona njihovih pametnih uređaja, kako se umjetna inteligencija može (ispravno i pogrešno) koristiti, na koje načine funkcioniraju društveni mediji i sl. Digitalizacija mijenja načine
na koji ljudi uče, stvaraju i rade, mijenja potrebe za različitim novim vještinama na tržištu rada. Tržište rada bori se s velikim nedostatkom stručnjaka na području AI. Partnerske organizacije primijetile su da obrazovni sustavi njihovih zemalja još uvijek nisu razvili sveobuhvatne obrazovne materijale primijenjive za učenike u
osnovnoškolskom obrazovanju (konkretno 5. - 8. razred). Zajedničkim znanjem, vještinama i iskustvom navedenih partnera pokrenut je projekt financiran sredstvima Europske komisije (skraćenog imena ARTIE) koji uključuje relevantne ciljeve usko povezane s politikom Europske komisije: podrška kvalitetnom obrazovanju, razvoj digitalnih vještina, poticanje inovacija i digitalnih kompetencija u svim obrazovnim ustanovama, stvaranje i dijeljenje otvorenih obrazovnih sadržaja i primjera dobre prakse.
|B. Denys, B. Klimczuk (Zamojskie Towarzystwo Oświatowe, Zamość, Poland), I. Ružić (I. OŠ Čakovec, Čakovec, Croatia)
‘CodeInnova’ Teaching Programming in Primary School
Is programming the literacy of the modern technology-oriented world? The answer seems obvious. The skills such as analytical thinking, problem solving and data analysis have become part of our life. Programming, present everywhere, enhances creativity and digital competences, so highly appreciated nowadays. Educational institutions aim at providing their students with necessary education in that field. However, while in some countries teaching programming in primary school is a basic element of the core curriculum, based on advanced and complex schemes, in others it is still only a topic for debates. In order to provide young people with equal chances for digital competence development, there is high demand for educational solutions supporting coding education in an effective, easily accessible way. This paper presents the initiative of five European institutions: Zamojskie Towarzystwo Oświatowe, Zamość, Poland; I. Osnovna škola, Čakovec, Croatia; Školska knjiga d.d., Zagreb, Croatia; JYU, University of Jyvaskyla, Finland; Agrupamento de Escolas de Fornos de Algodres, Portugal to create a coherent system of teaching programming at primary school together with necessary teaching resources that will be uniform for all project participating countries and available to all educational institutions interested in the idea.
|P. Pejić Papak (Faculty of Teacher Education, Rijeka, Croatia), J. Mezak (Učiteljski fakultet, Rijeka, Croatia)
Attitudes of students, future teachers, about the importance of using the media in teaching
The media are introduced into teaching based on knowledge of theories of learning and teaching. A stimulating learning environment is important to ensure an appropriate learning culture, in this context a stimulating multimedia environment. An innovative approach to the teaching process implies the selection of appropriate teaching media, approaches, methods and teaching strategies with regard to the defined outcomes and characteristics of individual media within the stimulating environment. The attitudes of students of the Faculty of Teacher education in Rijeka about the use of digital media in the teaching process with an emphasis on self-assessment of the use of digital technology are examined. Based on the assessment of their own ability to recognize different media, the results indicate that students choose media in accordance with the teaching content and they believe their digital skills are sufficient for quality implementation of media in teaching. Student attitudes are that the lessons in which the media are used are more interesting. According to students' answers, conclusion is that they believe that greater importance should be given to the use of digital media in the teaching process because they enable individualization of work, contribute to collaborative learning, game based learning and project learning.
|L. Jančec, L. Vujičić (Učiteljski fakultet Sveučilišta u Rijeci, Rijeka, Croatia)
Project "Algorithmic Thinking Skills through Play-Based Learning for Future's Code Literates"
Project „Algorithmic Thinking Skills Through Play-Based Learning for Future’s Code Literates“ (ALGO-LITTLE) is funded by Erasmus+ programme KA2. Project coordinator is İzmir Demokrasi University with a project team of experts in fields of robotics, developers for interactive learning platforms and preschool education experts from Turkey, Portugal, Italy, Slovenia and Croatia. The main goal of the project is to prepare a program and teaching material to teach undergraduate students how to develop algorithmic thinking skills in all areas of preschool education so they can integrate them into musical, artistic, mathematical, drama, scientific and linguistic activities that are included in early childhood learning. This project aims to offer the opportunity to acquire ICT-oriented skills and thus directly influence the modern skills of undergraduate students of early and preschool education. The emphasis is on teaching children through play about the new upcoming "literacy of the future", in which algorithmic thinking is predominantly expressed. The paper describes the context and reasons for starting the project, the planned intellectual results, the project activities and its expected impact. The most important activities include the preparation and development of curricula, interactive animated presentations and workshops, and piloting the implementation of courses in the spring semester of 2022.
|V. Kolar, D. Delija (College for Information Technologies, Zagreb, Croatia), G. Sirovatka (Zagreb University of Applied Sciences, Zagreb, Croatia)
Open-Source Intelligence as the New Introduction in the Graduate Cybersecurity Curriculum
This paper describes and analyzes the introduction of open-source intelligence areas in the cybersecurity curriculum. Learning outcomes and their attainment through the application of opensource intelligence as a new subject or as part of one or more existing subjects are considered. A strategy that can be applied and possible ways of selecting tools and exercises to achieve the objective are considered.
|J. Đurić, A. Mahmutović (Visoka škola za informacijske tehnologije Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia)
Software for Writing Online Exam with Video and Audio Surveillance - Cheatless
Our lives have been changed a lot during last year due to pandemic outbursts and earthquakes in Croatia. Teachers had very little time to adjust to online teaching, while students also had to adapt very quickly to the new situation. As classes progressed, dilemmas arose as to how exams would be held in an online environment. There are many solutions for conducting online exams, but some of these solutions are not designed to a particular institution’s specific needs. Using all available information about other solutions, the authors built a new software solution. Conducting online exams is not as easy as it may sound at first thought. Many problems must be considered, but the biggest concern is how to run a legit online exam without any possibility or at least a minimal probability of cheating. Using video and audio surveillance and restricting user’s computer from using other programs, restrictions can minimize those concerns, and online exams can be conducted almost as it is completed in classrooms.
|M. Drushlyak, I. Shishenko (Makarenko Sumy State Padagogical University, Sumy, Ukraine), N. Borozenets, K. Nekyslykh (Sumy National Agrarian University, Sumy, Ukraine), O. Semenikhina (Makarenko Sumy State Padagogical University, Sumy, Ukraine)
Computer Probabilistic Models Construction and Analysis of Professional Activity of Their Use by Ukrainian Mathematics Teachers
The article deals with the analysis of the dynamic mathematics software in order to determine those where it is possible to construct typical probabilistic models. The results of a survey of Ukrainian mathematics teachers on the activity of using specialized software in probability theory teaching are presented. The partial involvement of such software in the conditions of traditional learning and the increase of intensity in the conditions of distance learning are confirmed. The expediency of using MathKit software to construct typical probabilistic models based on the results of statistical tests is substantiated: tossing a coin, choosing one of several, choosing two of several, etc. The workshop on the formation of mathematics teachers’ skills to construct probabilistic model was organized based on Makarenko Sumy State Pedagogical University and its effectiveness was confirmed.
|M. Stankova, P. Mihova, T. Kamenski (New Bulgarian University, Sofia, Bulgaria), K. Mehandzhiyska (South West University, Blagoevgrad, Bulgaria)
Emotional Understanding Skills Training Using Educational Computer Game in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) – Case Study
The paper presents the results of Educational computer`s game application for social skills training by recognizing and naming emotions in children with Autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The educational computer game was developed on the basis of the ability model of Emotional intelligence. The main target of the game is to develop skills in children with ASD for emotional recognition, understanding and naming using story-based (plot) pictures and emoticons. The educational computer game was incorporated in the e-learning platform Moodle. The paper presents a case of a child with ASD and the results from a repeated application of the game. An analysis was made of the upgrading the skills for recognizing the emotions by counting the mistakes, searching for additional information, correct and false attempts in the individual modules of the game as well as the time for completing the tasks. Additionally, a survey for the parents was applied to collect information about the behavior of the child, his interest in the game and his motivation. The results show the need for short instruction, use of simple words and the game’s positive effect on recognizing emotions.
|M. Sokele, S. Morić, V. Zuppa Bakša (Tehničko veleučilište u Zagrebu, Zagreb, Croatia)
Development of New Complementary Metrics for the Authenticity of Student Papers
At Zagreb University of Applied Sciences Turnitin software has been in use since 2014 for bachelor’s and master’s theses plagiarism detection, as well as for authenticity checking of seminar papers. The decision about acceptable authenticity is made upon software generated originality report consisting of percentages showing similarity index of newly created text and already published sources. In this paper, based on the normalized Herfindahl – Hirschman Index, the metrics for authenticity level decision has been developed through new descriptive indicators: Effective number of different sources (ENDS) used in a text and Effective similarity index per source (ESIS). The metrics is descriptive. The usage of ENDS and ESIS indicators is examined at the Department of Electrical Engineering, proposing their introduction as new complementary indicators to the existing originality report for making decisions on student text authenticity.
|B. Balon, J. Đurić (College for Information Technologies, Zagreb, Croatia), M. Simić (The First Technical School Tesla, Zagreb, Croatia)
Arduino Platform as Learning Tool in High School and College Education
This paper describes the implementation of Arduino microprocessor platform in High school and College education. Here are presented preliminary experiences using the Arduino platform in the undergraduate computing curricula, at both the high school and college levels. The goal is to enhance student learning by engaging them in a projectbased learning experience and introducing them to fundamental computing and engineering concepts in the context of a highly visual and easy to use environment. Given the really small cost of the Arduino and all of its available variants, it is a perfect platform. What we're finding is that when students are engaging more of their senses during the act of learning, they're more likely to integrate the concepts, since the Arduino really connects the physical world to the digital world.
|D. Kučak, D. Bele (Visoko učilište Algebra, Zagreb, Croatia), Đ. Pašić (Erisson Nikola Tesla, Zagreb, Croatia)
Climbing up the Leaderboard: An Empirical Study of Improving Student Outcome by Applying Gamification Principles to an Object-Oriented Programming Course on a University Level
This research aimed to evaluate the impact of including gamification principles into the course Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) at the university level. Adopting object-oriented principles by students has been a well-known challenge for a long time. Most instructors agree that there is a problem for some students to understand object-oriented programming logic because it is abstract to them. The most important thing is to encourage and motivate them to practice more and exchange ideas among themselves. Gamification could be of great help in this case. Gamification represents the usage of game-design elements and principles in a non-game environment. When used in education, increasing students’ motivation is often the main goal. This paper contributes to this area by asking the research question: Does the use of gamification elements in the teaching process increases students’ motivation to practice more, and consequently score better on the exam (Q1). There were 112 students taught by the same instructor included in the study; one experimental group with 21 randomly selected students lectured with the use of gamification elements, and one control group with 91 students lectured without gamification elements. Both groups were given the same exam. The paper will show the results of the experiment.
|M. Seničić, V. Šimović, L. Lažeta (Zagreb University of Applied Sciences, Zagreb, Croatia)
Shifting pre-lab activity online for a more efficient instructional engineering laboratory session
When students come to the laboratory, the objective of the instructor is to, through carefully designed exercises, familiarize the students with concepts they have been learning about in lectures before the lab class itself. Lab work is an essential part of education of an engineer and this paper discusses how and why shifting pre-lab activity online using a Learning Management System is beneficial to both the students and the instructors and creates a more efficient instructional engineering laboratory session.
|V. Zuppa Bakša, V. Šimović, T. Đuran (Zagreb University of Applied Sciences, Zagreb, Croatia)
Learning management system as a tool for online knowledge evaluation in an engineering course during the COVID-19 pandemic
Disrupted by the COVID-19 pandemic, the 2019/20 academic year brought an unplanned shift to education online. While teaching itself became more challenging, the main disruption was in testing, where not being in the same room with students whose knowledge was being evaluated posed serious challenges. This paper discusses the approach taken by the lecturers of the course „Fundamentals of electrical engineering” in professional study of electrical engineering at the Zagreb University of Applied Sciences. The paper examines the important role of a properly set up Learning management system for knowledge evaluation and compares the unproctored online approach to the typical proctored exam.
|M. Vejačka, D. Paľová (Faculty of Economics, Technical university of Košice, Košice, Slovakia)
The Effectiveness of the Education in the University Course during and before the Covid-19 Pandemic
Information and communication technologies changed the ways of provision of banking and financial services in recent decades. The educational process in these fields must reflect recent development. This paper briefly describes the course of Electronic Services in Banking, which uses methods of eLearning to provide students experience with electronic services in banking and finance. The course is also aimed at the security and safe usage of these services. In 2020, the pandemic of Covid-19 affected virtually all areas of human activity. Due to anti-pandemic measures the course of Electronic Services in Banking took place only in the online environment. This paper further provides comparison of the efficiency of the education process in the course in pandemic year of 2020 and previous years. The efficiency of learning in the course was measured by the comparison of pre-course and post-course tests’ results using absolute gain, relative gain, and class average normalized gain over four years’ period. The impacts on effectiveness of the education process were not detected in pandemic year in comparison with average of non-pandemic years. The feedback of the students on the pandemic iteration of the course is also presented
|N. Kadoić, D. Oreški (University of Zagreb, Faculty of organization and informatics, Varaždin, Croatia)
Learning Analytics of YouTube Videos Linked to LMS Moodle
In education, the COVID crisis requires saving and real-time availability of a high quantity of data, especially video materials. Consequently, some institutions use YouTube to store large amounts of video data and link them to the LMS Moodle. In this paper, we are dealing with analyzing YouTube analytics data and Moodle data to discover new knowledge about students’ behavior and identify the factors that influence the students’ success. The variables that are analyzed in our approach include: type of video material, the complexity of the content in the video, the number of spikes, the number of dips, the week of semester, the type of study, absolute duration of the videos, the week of COVID isolation, subject, the number of students on the course, total views, the number of views in different time segments, total watch time, average percentage viewed in different time segments, the number of students that didn’t watch the videos, the number of downloads of files associated with videos in different time segments and others. We applied our approach to videos from two courses. Results indicated differences in interactions with videos in different time periods, differences in patterns for different types of videos. Research results could help teachers to monitor video viewing rates at key points throughout the semester to identify level of engagement and act early to prevent students’ dropout.
|J. Gusić, D. Šimić (Fakultet organizacije i informatike, Varaždin, Croatia)
Using Text Mining to Extract Information from Students’ Lab Assignments
We use text mining as a part of formative assessment in one generation of the first year undergraduate students enrolled in our Statistics course. Practical lab exercises were done in R and RStudio. During the semester, students wrote weekly assignments. There were 11 assignments. Assignments were prepared in Rmarkdown, and students added necessary code and text to the Rmarkdown document, knitted the document and submitted the generated html files. We wanted to identify students whose submissions were not substantially different from the assignment (substandard work) and groups of students who submitted similar texts (possible collusion or plagiarism). Additionally, we wanted to compare results of text mining with students’ final grades. Text analyses were done in R using packages XML, RCurl, RWeka and tm. A document term matrix was created with trigrams. For each assignment, distance between submitted texts was calculated as the Euclidian distance. Hierarchical cluster analysis with complete linkage was used to identify similarities between students’ assignments. The initial assignment was included for comparison. Clusters of assignments with very small inter assignment distances pointed to similarities of assignments. Students whose work was most distant from others were found to be either excellent, or failing students.
|N. Niittymäki, A. Christopoulos, M. Laakso (University of Turku, Turku, Finland)
Mobile Virtual Reality in Secondary Education: An Exploratory Study in the Course of Biology
The integration of Virtual Reality (VR) in education has shown positive results on learners’ engagement and outcomes. Nonetheless, such studies are usually conducted in controlled laboratory environments which have been set up to provide optimal experiences. Even though the outcomes of these works provide useful insights, they also raise serious questions about their validity and applicability in the actual classroom context. Under this consideration, we performed an empirical study in which the potential of an affordable mobile-VR solution was explored in the context of a Biology course (upper secondary education). The experiment lasted for three weeks during which different topics were explored and investigated. Participants’ (n=35) perception toward VR and knowledge advancement were monitored during the whole course of the study with the key findings suggesting that mobile-VR can provide an affordable yet diverse learning experience. In this work we highlight the benefits as well as the limitations/shortcomings of this method on the basis of which we provide researchers, educators, and (educational) developers recommendations related to the benefits and shortcomings of this approach. Finally, considering the current circumstances and the ‘new norms’ (i.e., remote teaching) exploring the potential of this method in distance learning contexts is highly advisable.
|D. Palova, M. Vejacka (Faculty of Economics, Technical university of Košice, Slovakia, Kosice, Slovakia)
The Main Issues of the Education Process during the COVID-19 Pandemic at the University Education
COVID-19 has taken the whole of human society by surprise, unprepared for a pandemic on such a large scale. Different restrictions have affected all areas of our lives. While the business sector has been able to respond relatively flexibly to these changes, changes in education are still relatively slow. Despite the first wave of the pandemic, when we stayed at home from the bottom up and often improvised, the second wave of pandemic surprised the education sector again more-less unprepared. As part of this paper, we will focus on a brief overview of activities done in near history, that were focused on development of e-learning at our faculty and following we analyze the current situation at our faculty at the time, when we are forced to be really on-line. Following we try to identify the most critical factors that affect online education at our faculty itself and the quality of knowledge transfer from the universities to the students.
|V. Krstić (College for Information Technologies, Zagreb, Croatia), I. Mekterović (Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, Zagreb, Croatia)
Unity as a Physics Simulator: Calculating Mean Free Path for Hard Disk Gas
In a typical physics course for non-physics majors, students analyze and solve problems that are simple and perceived by students as idealized to the extent that they are only remotely related to real-world problems. This perception hurts their motivation to learn fundamental physics. In this work, we show how students can use the Unity Physics Engine as a physics simulator to solve and analyze more complex and exciting physics problems than the standard paper-and-pencil problems. We provide an example of such a problem: calculating the mean free path for hard disk gas. By delegating the hard and tedious work of performing the time evolution of the system of gas particles to the Unity Physics Engine, students can concentrate on acquiring and analyzing data. In this way, students can engage with the physics of complex problems that could motivate them to learn fundamental physics. This approach to teaching physics is interesting in particular for a computer science major because it also helps students develop their programming skills.
|I. Kunovic, A. Sovic Krzic (Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, Zagreb, Croatia)
Comparison of Students’ Motivation for Programming Computer Game and Educational Robot Using the Game of Marbles
In this paper, an educational robot that can be controlled and programmed over the internet and a simple computer game of marbles are presented. The robot was made from Fischertechnik set and controlled with Arduino Uno, connected over the cloud using mBlock 5. The robot and most of the game were prepared before the workshops with students. Students aged 9-14 added basic control commands for the game and the robot. They filled out qualitative and quantitative questionnaires about the motivation for a live game of marbles, a computer game of marbles, and a robot game of marbles controlled over the internet. The pros and cons of a computer game and a robot design and control were evaluated. Changes in motivation for playing a live game of marbles before and after the computer game and robot game were analyzed. Finally, a comparison of students’ motivation for learning programming a computer game and an educational robot was made and advices for keeping the motivation were given.
|F. Škopljanac-Mačina (Fakultet elektrotehnike i računarstva, Zagreb, Croatia), I. Zakarija (Sveučilište u Dubrovniku, Dubrovnik, Croatia), B. Blašković (Fakultet elektrotehnike i računarstva, Zagreb, Croatia)
Organizing Online Exams during the COVID-19 Pandemic
In this paper we deal with the problem of creating an online environment for taking written exams during the lockdown caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. We have taken an approach that combines Microsoft Teams and an e-learning system. Before the exam begins all students join a Microsoft Teams meeting together with the teachers. This provides a simple way for teachers to check and monitor students' activity during the exam. Also, any student can immediately contact the teachers if they encounter technical problems. Online exam is accessed through an e-learning system. In our e-learning system exam questions can be parameterized, so that each student gets different variants of questions of the same difficulty. Furthermore, the order of the questions is randomized, so that students get different permutations of the questions. In smaller courses this can ensure that each student takes a unique variant of the exam which can discourage and minimize cheating. To answer questions students must upload scans or photos of their handwritten solutions. After the written online exam is manually evaluated, students must also take an oral exam through a Microsoft Teams meeting with the teachers. The described online exam procedure was used on the course Fundamentals of electrical engineering in the Fall semester of 2020/2021.
|V. Križnar, M. Leskovšek, B. Batagelj (University of Ljubljana Faculty of Computer and Information Science, Ljubljana, Slovenia)
Use of Computer Vision Based Hand Tracking in Educational Environments
|D. Vučkov (Judge at County court in Rijeka, Croatian football federation – head of VAR education, Rijeka, Croatia), S. Babić (Polytechnic of Rijeka, Rijeka, Croatia)
VARs/AVARs in Croatian Top Division (1. HNL) and Major League Soccer: Experiences with VAR System
The Video Assistant Referee (VAR) system is an innovative technology in football created to improve the decision-making process. This paper explores the similarities and differences between VARs/AVARs’ experiences in the Croatian Top Division (1. HNL) and Major League Soccer (MLS) in relation to the efficiency, possible limitations and improvements of the VAR system. These results and findings should help researchers and practitioners to improve application and functionality of the VAR system in football but also to identify possible problems.
|G. Đambić, M. Fabijanić, A. Lokas Ćošković (Visoko učilište Algebra, Zagreb, Croatia)
Automatic, Configurable and Partial Assessment of Student SQL Queries with Joins and Groupings
Many papers exist that research semi-automated or fully-automated assessment of SQL queries in the context of high education, as this approach promises less load on teachers, more consistent assessment across all students and faster feedback to students. Instead of assessment process that results either in all or none marks awarded for a query, high education standards are more in favor of providing partial marks. This, and the fact that there should be an easy way for a teacher to customize assessment rules to adapt them to institution standards, makes assessment process more complex so many currently available tools fall short. This paper presents a newly developed fully-automated assessment model and an information system that implements it system and explores the possibilities of using it for partial assessment in higher education. This assessment model is designed to support complex joins and groupings, making it more applicable for real students’ assignments and resulting queries. Students also get the immediate results and a list of found issues with their queries, which is very important for them in process of learning. In this paper, built system is compared with manual assessments of the same student queries and its shows promising results, even for very complex joins and groupings.
|P. Bernad (University of Maribor, Faculty of Natural sciences and Mathematics, Maribor, Slovenia), D. Šic (Primary school Tone Čufar, Maribor, Slovenia), R. Repnik, D. Osrajnik (University of Maribor, Faculty of Natural sciences and Mathematics, Maribor, Slovenia)
Development of Measurement Systems with the BBC Micro:bit
In today’s world, most of measurement equipment in teaching physics are digital and more computer like then their analogue counterpart. The process of measurement becomes as closed black box and students lack the real feel of experimentation. Often students just connect sensors, press start button and get the results. If something is not right, they do not understand the underlying physics and cannot explain the results nor find the errors in the process. In such cases, they often blame the “faulty” equipment. After years of observation and communication with the primary school students and teachers, we conclude that students need to be involved into the experiments equipment development. This not just enhance their physics knowledge and natural science competences but digital competences too. We used BBC Micro:bit and its sensors to develop experiment equipment. Students need to learn how to connect sensors and write the code to acquire data from the sensors. Later they use their sensors in measurements and try to explain the underlying physics phenomena they measure. We designed the blueprint for gradual building of complexity in measuring equipment. The case study was carefully prepared and conducted in a small group of primary school students.
|M. Lapi (Faculty of Education, Maribor, Slovenia), M. Krašna (Faculty of Arts, Maribor, Slovenia)
The Distance Learning Implications on High School Students
The necessary changes in the educational processes because of COVID-19 pandemic has many immediate and long-time implications. It is now clear that the stress of distance learning and lock-down have changed young persons in many aspects. In our research, we have focused on the teens – high school students from secondary schools in Slovenia. We wanted to see how they cope with the distance learning and the implication on their performance. Anonymous survey was answered from 325 high school students from all four years of secondary education. The questionnaire consisted of 38 questions grouped in two categories: (1) application of learning styles (2) assessment of the students’ performance. The stress of change affected the teachers and students alike. Some teachers used distancelearning methods more effectively than others did. We wanted to know how teachers’ skills influence the students’ performance. The obtained data and their analysis have shown that visual, reading and auditory kinesthetic learning styles have (significant) impact to the grade of high school students depending on study subjects. On the other hand, only kinesthetic distance-learning methods influence the performance of high school students in arts.
|I. Pesek, M. Krašna, T. Bratina (University of Maribor, Maribor, Slovenia)
Students’ Transition from High School to University in COVID-19 Constrained Education
At the beginning of 2020, the news has reached us that the COVID-19 virus is spreading fast. In a few weeks, the only option for the heads of states was to declare COVID-19epidemy and effectively lock people to their homes, forcing education at all levels to go online. In this same year, a generation of high school students have finished their secondary education and now continue with a university education due to the epidemy and online. This situation has made these students “transition guinea pigs” that can profoundly affect their lives. They changed the academic environment, changed the educational paradigms and principles, and now clearly lack social contact with their peers. Our research has two goals: to find how they cope with the changed educational paradigm and how they establish their social bonds with their schoolmates. The results show insight into the freshmen reality and their performance at the university. We also present the differences between online learning approaches in high school and university and the perceived and real problems with prolonged online education.
|J. Henno (Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn, Estonia), H. Jaakkola (Tampere University, Pori, Finland), J. Mäkelä (University of Lapland, Rovaniemi, Finland)
Machine Learning vs Human Learning
Machine Learning (ML) is a technology to make messages created by humans (text, images, speech etc.) more understandable for computers so that they could better answer humans' queries and needs when recalling this information. Here is considered the ML sub-area – Natural Language Processing (NLP) and presented examples of its methods using text corpuses created from MiproCE presentations.
|B. Marčinković (OŠ Bistrica ob Sotli , Bistrica ob Sotli, Slovenia), B. Aberšek, I. Pesek (Fakulteta za naravoslovje in matematiko, Univerza v Mariboru, Maribor, Slovenia)
The Satisfaction of Primary School Teachers with the Introduction and Use of MS Teams in Distance Education
Microsoft Teams is a chat-based collaborative ICT platform with many advantageous communication features that seek to improve distance learning effectiveness and efficiency in the educational environment. MS Teams was introduced a few months before the COVID crisis, and due to the situation, teachers had to quickly adopt and use this new form of technology in distance education. This research will present how teachers have accepted the MS Teams educational platform, whether they are satisfied with it and what factors influence this satisfaction. In the theoretical part, we describe the UTAUT. In addition to the UTAUT model, we also used the online tool SELFIE, which helps schools assess how they use digital technologies for innovative and effective learning. This self-assessment process can help schools to establish a dialogue on areas that can be improved. Applying the UTAUT model and the SELFIE tool, we prepared a questionnaire to investigate the satisfaction with MS Teams’ use and the connection between satisfaction with the teachers’ age and their experience with the general use of ICT. In the results, we present the survey analysis and which factors significantly influence adoption, satisfaction, and MS Teams in primary education.
|G. Prpić, M. Vuković, T. Babić (Algebra University College, Zagreb, Croatia)
Gender Differences in Ambition Level and Career Aspirations among Students
In addition to education, based on statistics, it is evident that ambition is a crucial factor when it comes to building a career and pursuing success. More ambitious people tend to strive for greater accomplishments and achieve a higher level of education and independence (in both personal and professional aspects of life). Previous research show that, even though the distribution of graduate degrees among women and men is similar, fewer women are working in executive-level jobs because women need to overcome more social, organizational and personal barriers to higher work positions. The goal of research conducted among students at Algebra University College was to examine if there is a gender gap in the level of ambition and career aspiration among male and female students because of the gender differences that were spotted among the workforce. The results of the conducted research have shown that there are some differences between male and female students when it comes to level of self-esteem and career aspiration, but there is no significant gender gap in ambition level among students.
|M. Sokele, S. Morić, T. Alajbeg, F. Brkić (Zagreb University of Applied Sciences, Zagreb, Croatia)
The Importance of Synchronous Online Learning for Student Success in Exams
Zagreb University of Applied Sciences adapted immediately to the Covid-19 pandemic crisis and lockdown in mid-March 2020, by organizing online education via a video conferencing platform. Online courses for undergraduate and graduate studies of electrical engineering have been held synchronously with a recording possibility, followed by related audio / video / written materials for students’ individual asynchronous online learning and knowledge assessment via LMS. In this paper, the results of an internal project about the correlation of students’ success in exams and their attendance at synchronous online lectures and exercises held at Department of Electrical Engineering are presented. The modeling of data was performed by linear regression and results were compared with similar ones based on previous face-to-face teaching results. The analysis showed a strong positive correlation between students’ success in exams and the existence of rich self-learning content as well as their attendance at synchronous online lectures and exercises.
|F. Urem, I. Kardum Goleš, I. Beljo (Polytechnic of Šibenik, Šibenik, Croatia)
Education for Entrepreneurship in Agriculture - Results of the AGRIENT Project Implementation
Agriculture and the food industry create a significant number of jobs in the European Union. Thanks to natural conditions, and especially the knowledge and skills of its farmers, the EU is the world's leading producer of agricultural products.
Unfortunately, at the same time there is a small share of young people in the total number of EU agricultural producers and entrepreneurs. It is assumed that innovative forms of education can further interest young people in entrepreneurship in agriculture.
This paper describes the results of the implementation of the Erasmus KA2 project Agrient, whose main goal is the development of competencies and skills for young people who want to develop their agribusiness. The project also developed an innovative training system with the application of virtual reality technology.
|A. Papić, K. Đurđević (Filozofski fakultet Osijek, Osijek, Croatia)
Young Adults' Privacy Concerns about Wearable Technology
Wearable technology is defined as a group of devices which can be worn at human body. Wearable technology can have positive impact on quality of life especially in regard to tracking physical or mental health. The most used wearable technologies are smartwatches, Google glasses, fitness trackers and safety wearables. Wearable technology has numerous advantages such as visualization of everyday life in real time and support for decision making, interoperability with other devices like smartphones and computers, recognition of disease symptoms as well as some emotions and moods. Furthermore, some experts perceive wearable technology as human’s sixth sense thus it can process information which other senses cannot process. In this paper was conducted research among 218 young adults in Croatia regarding their privacy concerns about wearable technology. The research results revealed that although young adults accentuated a lot of advantages of wearable technology, a majority of them pointed out following disadvantages of wearable technology: (1) high price, (2) possibilities of access and theft of personal data, (3) unwanted surveillance and (4) impossibility of permanent erasure of personal data.
|R. Vrana (Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities Zagreb , Zagreb, Croatia)
Open Educational Resources (OER) as Means of Promotion of Open Education
Educational sector is continuously advancing with the help of information and communication technology and the support of initiatives for development and implementation of open access to information resources which could be integrated in educational practices. As a result, education has become accessible to many people around the world in a way that has never been possible before. Special category of educational resources accessible openly on the internet are Open Educational Resources. They aim to facilitate access to the educational resources without any obstacle including cost. This paper aims to emphasize important facts about Open Educational Resources to promote their use.
|E. Rakovac Bekeš (I. gimnazija Osijek, Osijek, Croatia)
Creating Multisensory Learning Experiences That Go beyond the Limitations of Traditional Media
Digital tools can be used in various interesting ways to creatively deliver content and/or as a proxy for open ended students projects. However, they are all being bound by the limitations of physics. Augmented Reality paired with gamification becomes powerful tool for motivation and engagement. It also unlocks the ability to create multisensory learning experiences that go beyond the limitations of traditional media. These experiences make the teaching subject more tangible. Some of the experiences give students the ability to launch the content at any place while others need a trigger. We will show several examples how these experiences can be created, using various apps and tools based on trigger image, surface scanning or service location. They curriculum-based integration possibilities, and also their impact on student engagement while in remote and non-remote teaching environment.
|O. Fomichova (State Budget Professional Educational Institution “Sparrow Hills”, Moscow, Russian Federation), V. Fomichov (Moscow Aviation Institute, Moscow, Russian Federation)
Cognitive Painting as a Broadly Applicable Method of Constructing a Positive Cognitive-Emotional Space for Young Children and Adolescents under Conditions of the Coronavirus Pandemic
The paper introduces an original, broadly applicable method of creating a highly useful online prop being appropriate for the particular situation when children and adolescents find themselves in the pandemic restrictions launched into the digital cosmos without being trained to bear a flight lasting almost half a year, being a member of a busy crew, though they have never had an experience of being together with for twenty four hours a day. This method is called cognitive painting.
Within an online course in addition to the usual tasks we have started up a project dealing with creating a new year story underpinned by students’ own perception of snow (in case of snowy winters), their love towards their favorite Christmas toys, their Christmas wishes and hopes and underpinned by sound reasoning about Christmas gift in general, Christmas miracles a and Santa Clause.
62 school children took part in this work (the age from 7 to 18 years). As a result, we have a 92-pages printed book as an output of that co-creative work. A very precious feature of our method is that it can be effectively applied in arbitrary countries, taking into account the peculiarities of national culture and nature.
|A. Špernjak (Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, University of Maribor, Maribor, Slovenia)
Using ICT to Teach Effectively at COVID-19
Biology pre-service teachers in 3rd and 4th university year should perform 14-days pedagogic practice in lower secondary or secondary school. Because of the COVID-19 outbreak, the pedagogical practice was conducted as distance online education. Overnight, they were expected to adopt online environments. How successfully the pre-service teachers implemented the pedagogical practice of the university program Subject Teacher, Biology, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, University of Maribor, during COVID -19 is the content of this paper. The paper presents a SWOT analysis of the implementation of pedagogical practice in lower secondary and secondary schools in distance online education, during COVID -19. The key competences developed in distance education, the experience gained, the usefulness of ICT, which ICT is useful in distance education and the personal feelings of pre-service teachers before and after the practice are highlighted. Most pre-service biology teachers describe experience as good, exceptional and something quite different from the original expectations. Biology pre-service teachers are grateful for new knowledge about computer applications that are very useful in biology distance education (Powtoon, Filmora, Audacity, Quizlet, Zygote body, Moodle, Padlet, etc.). The main disadvantage of distance learning is the lack of direct contact with students and the time delay, as they spend 3 to 5 times more time preparing materials for distance learning than for performances in school settings.
|S. Lazorenko, T. Loza, I. Samokhvalova, . Khomenko (Makarenko Sumy State Pedagogical University , Sumy, Ukraine), N. Oliinyk (Vinnytsia Mykhailo Kotsyubynskyi State Pedagogical University, Vinnytsia , Ukraine)
Preparation of Future Specialists in Physical Culture and Sports for the Use of Digital Health Technologies in Professional Activity
The development of information technology has led to the emergence of specialized software in various fields of knowledge, including health and sports. Knowledge about them and the ability to use them become leading in the work of athletes and their coaches, so their mastery should take place within their professional training. The article describes a special course "Digital Health Technologies", which is studied by future specialists in physical culture and sports: content, forms, methods and teaching aids. The authors present the results of statistical analysis and confirm the effectiveness of the special course: students confirm the ability to use specialized software to develop health programs and rehabilitation programs for athletes. Analysis of alumni surveys confirmed the effectiveness of the course.
|Y. Rudenko (College of Economics and Trade, Sumy, Ukraine), A. Rozumenko (Sumy National Agrarian University, Sumy, Ukraine), T. Kryvosheya (Vinnytsia Mykhailo Kotsiubynskyi State Pedagogical University, Vinnytsia, Ukraine), O. Karpenko, O. Semenikhina (Makarenko Sumy State Pedagogical University, Sumy, Ukraine)
Online Training during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Analysis of Opinions of Practicing Teachers in Ukraine
The article presents an analysis of the attitude of school teachers and college teachers of the Sumy region to distance learning during the 2020 pandemic. The empirical data was obtained through an online survey in May and November 2020. The following factors were analyzed: technical support for distance learning; the level of professional training of teachers; ways to improve the qualifications of teachers; administration support level; main problems and difficulties in conducting distance lessons; the psychological attitude of teachers to conducting lessons online; comparison of the intensity of the load between traditional and distance learning; features of the organization of control; objectivity of assessment; personal attitude to online learning; prospects of using online education in the future. Among the main results: teachers' understanding of the need to constantly improve their digital competence; awareness of the importance of self-education and reflective assessments; experience exchange; passing online courses on educational platforms.
Remaining problematic: the organization of effective automated control and the objectivity of student assessment; low student responsibility, low self-discipline and motivation for online learning; academic integrity of students; low level of influence on motivation to learn.
|A. Yurchenko, V. Shamonia, O. Udovychenko, R. Momot, O. Semenikhina (Makarenko Sumy State Pedagogical University, Sumy, Ukraine)
Improvement of Teacher Qualification in the Field of Computer Animation: Training or Master Class?
The article addresses the issues of the need to learn throughout life and professional development of teachers in the field of information technology. In the article, the authors compare the effectiveness of training and master classes for teachers. The authors note the importance of visual support of educational activities, provide the results of the analysis of tools for creating computer animation and describe the results of the author's research. The authors compare the effectiveness of training and a master class in teaching teachers to create computer animations. The experiment was conducted at Makarenko Sumy State Pedagogical University (Ukraine). Number of study participants – 121. Both forms of training (training and master class) proved their effectiveness, but the authors noted differences for age groups of teachers: young teachers showed higher performance in the master class, and teachers with more than 10 years of experience – in the results of training. The authors also recorded the problem for young teachers not so much to create an animation, but to generate an idea for its construction (the idea of the animation itself).
|L. Hundgeburth, H. Liechtenecker, W. Werth (CUAS, Villach, Austria)
Design and Evaluation of a Deep Learning Powered Image Regression Sensor for Control Engineering Applications
This paper focuses on the study of Deep Learning based solutions in Computer Vision applications in Control Engineering. Machine Learning based Systems recently gained a lot of scientific traction, as the latest advances in complex fields like Computer Vision and Natural Language Processing proved their great capabilities in learning abstract and non-linear relationships.
To demonstrate the power and operational capability of Machine-Learning algorithms within sensor-applications, an image regression model able to predict the angular position of a servo motor shaft, given only images as the sensors input will be designed and trained. The selected device is well known and used as common actuator in many control applications. A large dataset consisting of 100.000 labelled images was necessary during training for the model to obtain its final prediction accuracy. The final model and its generalization capabilities underline the potential of Neural Networks to adapt themselves to engineering-tasks which are hardly achievable with traditional methods. The paper concludes with a statistical analysis of the trained sensor to gain some insights at the performance and behavior of the derived model.
|D. Tuparova (SWU "Neofit Rilski", Blagoevgrad, Bulgaria), G. Tuparov (New Bulgarian University, Sofia, Bulgaria), K. Mehandzhiyska (SWU "Neofit Rilski", Blagoevgrad, Bulgaria)
Learning Topic “Safe Internet” in Low Secondary School through Games
Modern children use more and more Internet services for various purposes - entertainment, learning, communication with friends, etc. One of the tasks of parents and educational institutions is to inform the children about the rules for safe usage of Internet services and train them to follow these rules. In this article we present a set of mini games aimed at the formation of digital competencies on the topic of "Safe Internet". The games are designed for pupils in low secondary schools. They are developed as SCORM packages and are delivered to students in Moodle e-learning environment. In addition, we present the results of their pilot testing with students in 5th, 6th, and 7th grades.
Marina Čičin-Šain (Croatia), Jaak Henno (Estonia), Hannu Jaakkola (Finland), Snježana Babić (Croatia)
Michael E. Auer (Austria), Marjan Krašna (Slovenia), Dusko Lukac (Germany), Robert Repnik (Slovenia), Slavomir Vukmirović (Croatia)
Lejla Abazi-Bexheti (Macedonia), Nikola Kadoić (Croatia), Ivan Kaštelan (Serbia), Mario Konecki (Croatia), Božidar Kovačić (Croatia), Gorana Mudronja (Croatia), Dana Paľová (Slovakia), Libuša Révészová (Slovakia), Frano Škopljanac-Mačina (Croatia), Andreja Špernjak (Slovenia)
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Ako je sažetak rada na hrvatskom, rad i izlaganje je također na hrvatskom jeziku. Ako je sažetak rada na engleskom, rad i izlaganje rada također treba biti na engleskom jeziku.
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Opatija svojim gostima nudi brojne komforne hotele, odlične restorane, zabavne sadržaje, umjetničke festivale, vrhunske koncerte ozbiljne i zabavne glazbe, uređene plaže i brojne bazene i sve što je potrebno za ugodan boravak gostiju različitih afiniteta.
U novije doba Opatija je jedan od najpoznatijih kongresnih gradova na Mediteranu, posebno prepoznatljiva po međunarodnim ICT skupovima MIPRO koji se u njoj održavaju od 1979. godine i koji redovito okupljaju preko tisuću sudionika iz četrdesetak zemalja. Ovi skupovi Opatiju promoviraju u nezaobilazan tehnološki, poslovni, obrazovni i znanstveni centar jugoistočne Europe i Europske unije općenito.
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