Chair: Stjepan Golubić (Ericsson Nikola Tesla, Zagreb, Croatia)
|G1 Telecomm Business Management
Chair: Vlasta Hudek (Rezultanta, Zagreb, Croatia)
|D. Markulin (HT, Zagreb, Croatia), M. Kunštić (FER, Zagreb, Croatia)
Result of Using Formal Methods in Modeling Telecommunication Business Management
Specification of business management for telecommunication service provisioning is very demanding procedure. All possible scenarios have to be estimated and for every scenario all needed network configurations and other actions have to be ensured. Additionally, business rules in every scenario have to be satisfied.
Best way for modelling telecommunication business management is using tools for graphical presentation. In this work UML is used like tool for graphical presentation of business process. UML is a standard language with wide using in different system modelling. UML activity diagram is very useful tool for modelling of business processes. But, modelling of very complex business processes without simulation of requested system management does not give enough clear picture which can result with many mistakes during development. Simulation gives developers of system management possibility to see requested changes deeper and clearer. This paper gives result of using formal methods for the purpose of business management simulation.
|K. Musa, D. Markulin (HT, Zagreb, Croatia)
Proposal for business process modelling and development in condition of complex telecommunication market
In condition of complex and competitive telecommunication market time reaction of Telecommunication Operator in case of implementation new telecommunication service is very important. Another situation when fast reaction of Telecommunication Operator is very important is satisfaction of Regulator’s requests. These requests are mainly demanding and with the short deadline. Business processes in these situations are playing one of the key roles. Most of these processes are complex and it is very important to model these processes on optimal and easy applicable way.
In this paper kind of business process modelling suitable for complex business processes are introduced. Model is consisted of more modules which contain activities for realising of certain configuration in telecommunication network. Modules have to be designed on optimal way so that implementation of new processes and change of the existing ones is easy. Syntax of UML activity diagram is used for modelling. Diagram is suitable for modelling of system support and human behaviour. It gives visual picture of business support which is acceptable for all participants in business process and system support design.
|R. Hable, E. Platzer (evolaris next level gmbh, Graz, Austria)
Evaluation of a Development Framework for a Mobile Gaming Platform with Financial Transfers
Mobile gaming is a research field of growing interest due to increasing usage numbers and revenue rates. The increases are mostly caused by improvements of mobile devices and networks that enable better performance and usability of mobile games. In this paper a new framework for the development in a mobile gaming platform environment is presented. The gaming platform includes financial transfers that require specific precautions in the development process as well as in the maintenance of the platform. The development framework is evaluated in a comparative research design against other available frameworks that also meet most of these specific requirements. Evaluation criteria applied in the comparative setting are efficiency and effectiveness in form of development effort and expenses. As a result we present the differences between frameworks as well as disadvantages and advantages of our framework regarding economic as well as technical target values.
|I. Fosić, V. Ećimović (HEP d.d., Osijek, Croatia)
Wireless Connecting of Substations for the Purposes of Business and Process Networks of HEP
As specific systems in substations develop and improve, there appears a greater need for remote control and communication. The company’s own optical infrastructure is primarily used for the purposes of business and process network. Because of their geographical setting, certain substations cannot be connected by optical cables. Instead, rented connections are being used, and, more and more often, wireless connections that help reduce renting costs and increase safety. In substations, business network (e-mail, internet, intranet...) is used occasionally, and process network (systems of remote guidance, measuring, managing...) is used constantly whereby it is necessary to separate the data flow of these two networks. The usual way to separate these two networks within the optical infrastructure is by means of VRF-Lite technology, which should also be implemented for the wireless connections of substations. This makes the wireless technology even more complex. Increased data safety, the availability of the wireless network, and return on investment in wireless equipment justify the use of this technology for the purpose of connecting substations in a unique IP network of HEP. The analyzed case describes and tests the wireless network connecting the substation Brodsko Brdo 35/10 kV over substation Slavonski Brod 110/35 kV onto IP network, which meets the requirements of both the business and the process network.
|B. Jukić (Ericsson Nikola Tesla, Zagreb, Croatia)
Istraživanje o preferencijama i očekivanjima hrvatskih IPTV korisnika
Posljednjih nekoliko godina dolazi do velikih promjena u telekom sektoru. Od visoko profitabilne industrije koja je godinama bilježila rast poslovanja, telekom industrija u posljednje vrijeme prolazi kroz turbulentno razdoblje. Telekom operatori suočeni s padom prihoda i sve većim pritiskom na održanje vlastite korisničke baze, a pogotovo u području fiksne telefonije, traže nove izvore prihoda uz zadržavanje vlastitih korisnika i privlačenje novih korisnika. Uz već postojeće napredne tehnologije za fiksni i mobilni prijenos podataka, IP televizija je prepoznata kao jedan od glavnih pokretača razvoja poslovnih modela telekom operatora.
Osnovna ideja ovog rada je sagledati utjecaj IP televizije na evoluciju poslovnih modela telekom operatora u Hrvatskoj, a temeljni doprinos rada je sadržan u rezultatima provedenog empirijskog istraživanja.
Rezultati empirijskog istraživanja, koje je obuhvatilo 436 ispitanika iz cijele Hrvatske, daju uvid u preferencije i očekivanja hrvatskih korisnika na IPTV uslugu, te daju smjernice za daljnji razvoj IPTV poslovnih modela u Hrvatskoj.
Poznavanje navika i očekivanja krajnjih korisnika je nužan preduvjet za prilagodbu korisničkih paketa. Integracijom IPTV usluge s klasičnim komunikacijskim uslugama, telekom operatori su u mogućnosti ponuditi krajnjim korisnicima nove inovativne usluge prilagođene njihovim željama i potrebama koje se mogu konzumirati bilo kad, bilo gdje i na bilo kojem uređaju.
|G2 Network Management
Chair: Branko Mikac (Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Zagreb, Croatia)
|M. Hruby, M. Olsovsky, M. Kotocova (Slovak University of Technology, Faculty of Informatics and Information Technologies, Bratislava, Slovakia)
Methodology for Optimal Link Selection using Multivariant Normal Distribution
Network throughput and bandwidth overprovisioning do not provide equal quality of service for all applications. Time characteristics of the network must also be taken in mind when deploying applications which are sensitive to delay and jitter, e.g. VoIP. By means of changing the path of traffic significant improvement of the time-variable can be achieved. In this paper we propose a methodology for optimal link selection based on modeling network characteristics using a multivariant normal distribution model – cube model. This approach enables real-time identification of reliable links and provides input for a modified composite optimal path selection algorithm. Aside from this our model can be used for determining futire network improvements to increase the quality of service.
|S. Kasapovic, D. Ceke, S. Mujacic, A. Hadzimehmedovic (University of Tuzla, Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina)
Comparison Ways of Assignment of Codes in UMTS Networks
The channelisation codes used in Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) belong to the family of OVSF codes. They are organised according to a code tree structure. OVSF codes are primarily used to preserve orthogonality between different channels. The 3G system has to provide applications with higher and multirate and different quality of service (QoS) requirements. UMTS networks employs wide-band code division multiple access (WCDMA) to support multirate applications utilizing OVSF codes. The transmission rate can be easily changed by changing the spreading factor of orthogonal spreading code. The objective of code assignment is to enhance statistical multiplexing and spectral efficiency of WCDMA systems supporting variable user data rates. This paper compares the performance of OVSF code assignment schemes, in terms of code blocking probability. We research the problem of assigning (OVSF) codes at the download link in 3G mobile communications systems employing WCDMA.
|T. Kazaz, M. Kulin, E. Kaljić (Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina), T. Čaršimanović (BH Telecom JSC, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina)
One Approach to the Development of Custom SNMP Agents and Integration with Management Systems
This paper presents an approach to the development of custom agents and their integration with network management systems. For the development of agents is given one approach, and according to this approach an implementation of the agent using OpenDMK libraries in the Java programming language is performed. Within the agents are implemented all standard SNMP functionality - reading values, setting values and traps sending. Finally, the integration is performed with several network management systems such as Zenoss and Cacti. Tests have confirmed the success of this integration, thus verifying the proposed approach.
|D. Butković, N. Dragun (Hrvatski Telekom d.d., Zagreb, Croatia)
Implementacija sustava za dinamičku prilagodbu karakteristika DSL linija u okruženju telekomunikacijskog operatora
Telekomunikacijski operatori svakodnevno se susreću s izazovima povećanja broja korisnika, povećanja propusnosti mreže i smanjenja troškova održavanja u pružanju širokopojasnih usluga temeljenih na DSL tehnologiji koja koristi bakrenu paricu kao medij za prijenos podataka. Bakrena parica u svojem nastanku nije bila zamišljena za prijenos velike količine podataka, podložna je vanjskim utjecajima ( preslušavanje u kabelu, meteorološke nepogode, radio interferencije i slično ) pa je potrebno uložiti dodatne napore kako bi se optimalno iskoristila kao medij.
Ovaj članak opisuje izvedbu DSM (Dynamic Spectrum Management) sustava u mreži velikog telekomunikacijskog operatora. U radu opisani sustav prepoznaje degradacije usluge u mreži te preventivno prilagođava DSL linijske parametre te poboljšava kvalitetu linije i smanjuje njenu osjetljivost na vanjske utjecaje.
|G3 Optical Networks
Chair: Vlasta Hudek (Rezultanta,Zagreb, Croatia)
|S. Dizdarević, Ž. Božinović, H. Dizdarević (BH Telecom d.d. Sarajevo, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina)
Optimal techno-economic selection of the optical access network topologies
Optimal techno-economic selection of optical access network topologies involves finding the key techno-economic criteria that will be used for the topology selection. Optimum position represents a point where it simultaneously achieves a minimum of technical parameters to ensure quality results in the near and distant future of the access network exploitation, with the lowest cumulative financial investments in new network architecture and all its future changes. The criteria must be independent of the type of considered technologies, and taking into account previous investment in the access network (available resources and supporting infrastructure). We have developed a mathematical simulation model for optimal techno-economic selection of topologies. The model determines the required number of optical fibers of certain characteristic segments of the access network, taking into account the density of users per 1 km2, guaranteed bandwidth for each user, and the possible topology of optical access networks. The results obtained by simulation show that the increase in density of users, with a constant guaranteed bandwidth, isn’t the determining factor for the optimal choice of topology. On the other hand, the same results show that increasing the guaranteed bandwidth, with a constant density of users, represent critical elimination factor for optimal techno-economic selection of topologies. Under the same conditions, simulation results show that the initially favorable topology, in terms of techno-economic feasibility, after a few iterations in bandwidth increase may become unfavorable compared to competing considered topologies.
|M. Džanko, B. Mikac (Fakultet elektrotehnike i računarstva, Zagreb, Croatia), V. Miletić (Sveučilište u Rijeci, Rijeka, Croatia)
Availability of All-Optical Switching Fabrics Used in Optical Cross-Connects
The application of all-optical switching fabrics will be an important breakthrough in avoiding capacity bottleneck caused by electronic-switching in optical networks. All-optical domain of achieved network is characterised by absence of optical-electrical-optical conversions. In this paper, the-state-of-the-art of optical switching fabrics used in optical cross-connect is reviewed. Moreover, availability analysis of those switching fabrics have been examined. Methods for increasing availability of MEMS switches and entire optical network have been shown.
|S. Horvat, I. Barešić, Z. Trlin (TimCOM d.o.o., Zagreb, Croatia)
Otvoreni pristup korištenju FTTH aktivne opreme
Sve veći zahtjevi za širokopojasnim uslugama (brzina, propusnost, otpornost) uvjetuju neminovan prelazak sa bakrene na svjetlovodnu infrastrukturu.
Glavna prepreka kod prelaska na svjetlovodnu infrastrukturu jest trošak investicija u aktivnu i pasivnu opremu.
Ovaj rad dat će prijedlog rješenja kako smanjiti trošak investiranja, ponajprije u aktivnu opremu, dijeleći je između zainteresiranih operatora. Dijeljenjem troškova aktivne opreme, operatori mogu zajednički realizirati FTTx mrežu na određenom prostoru te tako Korisniku ponuditi izbor uz korištenje najnovije tehnologije.
Ovaj otvoreni pristup aktivnoj opremi temelji se na povjerenju i poštenju između različitih operatera, koji zajednički koriste pasivnu ali i aktivnu opremu te je idealan za operatere grupirane u konzorcij ili grupu npr. konzorcij alternativnih operatera.
Dodatna mogućnost da vlasnik opreme ne bude i operater za usluge, bila bi idealna za lokalne zajednice i velike korporacije koje mogu uložiti u opremu i infrastrukturu, te je potom iznajmljivati operaterima usluga, gdje bi vlasnik opreme i infrastrukture bio odgovoran za njeno uredno funkcioniranje i održavanje.
|G4 Regulations and Standardization
Chair: Mario Weber (Croatian Post and Electronic Communications Agency, Zagreb, Croatia)
|F. Gabela (BH Telecom, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina)
Pravno uređenje nadzora i tehničko snimanje telekomunikacija u državama Evropske unije i Bosni i Hercegovini
Ovaj rad daje pregled pravnog uređivanja nadzora i tehničkog snimanja telekomunikacija u državama Evropske unije i Bosni i Hercegovini. U radu su opisane obaveze pravnih i fizickih osoba koje pružaju telekomunikacijske usluge i vrše telekomunikacijske djelatnosti, u pogledu osiguranja ovlaštenim agencijama da vrše nadzor i tehničko snimanje razgovora koji se vode sredstvima komunikacije na daljinu i to njihovim presretanjem u trenutku dok komunikacija još uvijek traje, snimanje tih razgovora i njihova kasnija reprodukcija.
|H. Šemić, F. Gabela (Fakultet za saobraćaj i komunikacije, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina)
Pravni okvir primjene elektronskih potpisa u Bosni i Hercegovini
Ovaj rad daje pregled pravne regulative primjene elektronskog potpisa u Bosni i Hercegovini. U radu su opisani i najvažniji probleme u vezi sa primjenom elektronskog potpisa u Bosni i Hercegovini.
|I. Kasipović (HAKOM, Zagreb, Croatia), I. Podnar Žarko (FER, Zagreb, Croatia)
Regulatory Aspects of Internet Television
Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) services are defined as multimedia services, such as television, video audio, text, graphics and data, delivered over IP-based networks managed to provide the required level of quality of service and experience, security, interactivity and reliability. The paper provides an overview and comparative analysis of the state of affairs related to the regulation of IPTV services in the world and Europe and points out important issues related to the regulation of IPTV services specific to the Republic of Croatia. Furthermore, we present a detailed analysis related to the provisioning of IPTV services to identify potential problems which can occur during the development of IPTV service market in the Republic of Croatia. Based on this analysis, we provide a list of advised regulatory obligations for operators providing IPTV services in the Republic of Croatia.
|J. Zecic, M. Hadzialic (UNIVERSITY OF SARAJEVO, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina), A. Haskovic (UNIVERSITY OF SARAJEVO, Faculty of Traffic and Communication, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina)
An approach to estimate correlation of QoS and perceptual video quality in packet-switched networks
Traditional QoS parameters estimated at network level are not suitable for describing quality of service perceived by the end user, but user experience can be described by QoE (Quality of Experience). QoS at user level is perceptual and subjective parameter, but there are recommendations which formalize procedures for testing perceptual quality. There are subjective and objective video quality assessment methods which are used for estimating video quality.
This paper proposes a model for estimating the impact of QoS parameters on the perceptual quality of video signals. The proposed model assumes use of layered QoS model. QoS parameters of MPEG-4 video transmission in various network configurations were analyzed and by comparing estimated QoS parameters to perceived video quality a conclusion was made how some of the QoS parameters impact perceptual quality of video signals.
EvalVid integrated into NS-2 simulator was used for estimating QoS parameters. SSIM index was used as objective video quality metric, which has been calculated using MSU VQMT tool.
|A. Džebo, H. Mutapčić (Communications Regulatory Agency , Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina)
Regulatorni aspekti kognitivnog radio pristupa
The radio frequency spectrum is rapidly becoming one of our planet’s most valuable natural resources. The development of wireless communication technologies requires finding ways to more dynamic and efficient access to spectrum. The technology that is emerging as a solution to this challenge is cognitive radio (CR - Cognitive Radio), which is a real small revolution in wireless communication with a significant influence on the development of future technologies to provide customer service. This system uses information about the availability of the spectrum to adjust its transmission parameters such as frequency, transmitter power, etc. It is designed to ensure efficient use and greater flexibility in the use of the spectrum that are unused by the current (primary) users without harmful interference. This technology creates challenges not only for the participants in the telecom market it is already one of the key elements in future radio frequency spectrum management system. For the use of CR technology co-existence between different services in the same frequency band is necessary and includes their simultaneous use, regardless of their regulatory status (primary, secondary).
|T. Majnarić (Lator d.o.o., Zagreb, Croatia)
Access Regulatory Remedies in Point-to-Multipoint Fiber Access Networks
This article analyzes access regulatory remedies in fiber access networks, built by operators with significant market power. A focus is put on point‑to‑multipoint fiber networks. Considering that such topology generally prevents economically viable wide‑spread unbundling of fiber loops, comparable to traditional copper loops, other access remedies at local network level have to be imposed by regulators. These remedies include physical access to fibers in terminating sections of access networks and bitstream access at local nodes. The article gives detail overview of technical aspects of these regulatory remedies. The comparison to traditional copper access networks is also given, as well as importance of imposition of adequate fiber migration paths for alternative operators.
|G5 Signaling and Protocols
Chair: Dragan Jevtić (Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, Zagreb, Croatia)
|A. Lebl, Z. Markov, D. Mitic (IRITEL AD, BEOGRAD, Serbia)
Improvement of Method for Telephony Network Signal Sending over Internet
This paper describes one drawback in the Internet recommendation RFC2833biscas. The recommendation deals with the method of telephone signalling sending over Internet network and the problem existed in the case of line R2 signalling sending when E1 transmission system is used in classic telephone network. The authors of the recommendation accepted our suggestion and changed the text of the recommendation in accordance with our proposal. The changes are introduced in the new recommendation RFC5244.
|D. Žigman, I. Jesih, N. Kasunić (Tehničko veleučilište u Zagrebu, Zagreb, Croatia)
Implementacija IPv6 na OSPF usmjernički protokol
U 2011. godini cjelokupni adresni prostor na IPv4 je dodijeljen. Vrijeme je prelaska na novu verziju Internet protokola, budući da je cjelokupni adresni prostor verzije 4 iskorišten. Kako bi se omogućio daljnji rast “Interneta” nužna je implementacija nove verzije – Internet protokola verzije 6 (IPv6). Iako je već davno razvijen, njegova implementacija teče mnogo sporije nego što se predviđalo. Novi protokol donosi mnoge novosti i poboljšanja, a postojeći poput OSPF-a zahtijevaju nadopune.
|E. Kaljic, M. Hadzialic, M. Kuric (Faculty of Electrical Engieering, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina)
Implementation of ParlayX Interfaces for Standard GSM Modems to Support the Development of SMS-Based Applications
The goal of this paper was to develop a Simple Access Object Protocol (SOAP) Parlay X Web service interface that supports standard GSM modems and can be used as development and testing environment for SMS based applications. The service interface was translated into Java classes from a selected set of Parlay X version 2.1 Web Service Description Language (WSDL) files providing mandatory SMS functionality. SendSms, ReceiveSms, NotificationManager and SmsNotification Web services were fully implemented. Other Parlay X services (e. g. MMS, ringtone services and other) can be built in a similar fashion and easily integrated into the system architecture. The service backend was implemented using Java wrapper classes that mimic the described Web services, their datatypes and membership functions. The SIM300 GSM modem was used to transmit and receive SMS, while a MySQL database schema was used as interface between the modem and the service interface. Handler classes (also implemented in Java) were used as modem behaviour controller, while the database connection was established using the Java Database Connectivity classes provided by Oracle. Detailed System architecture, implemented Web services functionality, database structure and Finite State Machine (FSM) protocol diagram of the modem handler were given in this paper.
|M. Mikuc, V. Vasić, S. Brčina, L. Kovačević, M. Marić, T. Marini, V. Pokornić, R. Vežnaver (FER, Zagreb, Croatia)
NgP Protokol za dogovor parametara
Problem većine današnjih sigurnosnih protokola poput SSH, SSL, IPsec, PPP, TSL i sličnih je taj što se, pomoću unaprijed poznatih algoritama, dogovaraju oko razmjene ključeva za sigurnu komunikaciju a da pri tom ne daju fleksibilnost odabira samih algoritama. S obzirom da danas postoji nekoliko različitih preporuka o tome koji je algoritam bolje koristiti (uz preporučenu duljinu ključa), nameće se ideja o protokolu koji bi služio za dogovaranje algoritama koji najviše odgovara i jednom i drugom sugovorniku u komunikaciji.
U radu je opisan protokol NgP (Negotiation Protocol) koji omogućava međusobno dogovaranje mrežnih čvorova o kriptografskim algoritmima koje će koristiti prilikom daljnje međusobne komunikacije. Protokol je osmišljen i implementiran tako da omogućuje sigurnu razmjenu i dogovor parametara između dva ravnopravna čvora. Sigurnosni zahtjevi obuhvaćaju zaštitu integriteta i autentifikaciju. Protokol je prvotno specificiran te potom verificiran pomoću programskih alata za simulaciju petrijevih mreža. Implementacija je izvedena u programskom jeziku Python i validirana u sklopu mrežnog simulatora/emulatora IMUNES. Kao rezultat je dobivena aplikacija koja je u potpunosti kompatibilna s operacijskim sustavom FreeBSD i programskim alatom IMUNES.
|Invited Paper 1
Chair: Stjepan Golubić (Ericsson Nikola Tesla, Zagreb, Croatia)
|U povodu 60.godišnjice IEEE Comunications Society i 15. Godišnjice Odjela za komunikacije Hrvatske sekcije IEEE
Razvoj znanosti i visokog obrazovanja na području telekomunikacija i informatike u Hrvatskoj
Speakers: V. Sinković, I. Podnar Žarko (Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, Zagreb, Croatia)
|Invited Paper 2
Chair: Tihana Galinac Grbac (Faculty of Engineering, Rijeka, Croatia)
|Predictability and Evolution in Resilient Systems
Speaker: I. Crnković (School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Västerås, Sweden)
|G6 Cloud Computing in Telecommunications
Chair: Davor Šarić (T-Croatian Telecom, Zagreb, Croatia)
|N. Katica, A. Tahirović (Ericsson d.o.o , Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina)
Opportunities for Telecom Operators in Cloud Computing Business
Evolution of the internet has resulted with the evolution of the new kind of business model called cloud computing. Advantages of cloud computing are widely recognized as a viable way to reduce operational costs. It gives companies and individuals access to different kind of services without the need for the investment in traditional way, they pay only for the infrastructure and applications they use, for the time they use them. In this work, we will try to discuss what telecom operators, as leaders in providing telecommunication services, can do to be competitive with other companies on the market as cloud service providers. As they already have the infrastructure, it gives them head start in this field, which they should use. Also, we will try to explain what is the role of Ericsson, as a vendor, in helping telecom operators to launch cloud services.
Evolucija interneta rezultirala je evolucijom novog poslovnog modela nazvanog colud computing (“računarstvo u oblaku”). Prednosti korištenja cloud computing-a su prepoznate kao održiv način reduciranja operativnih troškova. Cloud computing obezbjeđuje kompanijama i pojedincima pristup različitim servisima bez potrebe za dodatnim ulaganjem na dosadašnji način. Korisnici plaćaju samo infrastrukturu i aplikacije koje su im potrebne i to onliko vremena koliko ih koriste. U ovom radu ćemo pokušati objasniti šta telekom operatori, kao lideri u pružanju telekomunikacijskih servisa, mogu uraditi kako bi ostali kompetitivni na tržištu sa drugim kompanijama, kao davaoci cloud service usluga. Obzirom da posjeduju infrastrukturu, telekom operatori imaju prednost u odnosu na druge IT kompanije, te bi to trebali i iskoristiti. Također, u ovom radu ćemo opisati koja je uloga Ericssona, kao vendora, u pomaganju telekom operaterima da pokrenu colud servise.
|V. Čačković, Ž. Popović (Ericsson Nikola Tesla, Zagreb, Croatia)
The Use of IMS for Cloud Based Services Control and Management
Cloud computing is a model for enabling ubiquitous, convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction.
Focus of this paper is on positioning of standardized services and architectures with cloud-based OTT services. Cloud based services working atop of IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) is perceived as model architecture for use in high-quality multimedia applications.
The IMS supports heterogeneous networking with Quality-of-Service (QoS), policing, resources allocation and meeting regulatory requirements and by doing so enhancing cloud based computing services.
|S. Počuča (Nokia Siemens Networks Zagreb d.o.o., Zagreb, Croatia), B. Maršić (Siemens d.d., Zagreb, Croatia), A. Grgić (Nokia Siemens Networks Zagreb d.o.o., Zagreb, Croatia)
Possible scenarios for cloud-based offering by CSPs
A reason that many CSPs are introducing a cloud computing and SaaS in their offerings is to stay competitive and not to loose their business. One of the great advantages of cloud is scalability, faster time to market and less risk to launch a new service, which brings CSPs in position where they don't need anymore to invest in a huge installed base and spent on CAPEX in order to be profitable. Basic principles and cloud computing segments like PaaS, IaaS, SaaS and technical and business dimension of cloud offerings are introduced in this paper. In addition, this paper discusses pros and cons of cloud and SaaS for CSPs and other verticals such as energy, health, telematics, retail,etc. What are possible scenarios for B2C offering (centered on VAS and Customer Experience Management cloud solutions) and for B2B offering (centered on machine 2 machine solutions) are discussed as well. In the end as a an overview the paper is showing how CSPs in a small, high-ARPU market like Croatia want to behave, what are their benefits compared to big OTT players like Google, Amazon etc. and what they are currently offering in the field. In addition, this paper gives proposal how telecom vendors could help CSPs to become successful in cloud business.
|K. Popović (Siemens d.d. , Osijek, Croatia), Ž. Hocenski (Faculty of Electrical Engineering in Osijek, Osijek, Croatia)
Cloud Computing in Telecommunication
Amazon Simple Queue Service (Amazon SQS) is a message-oriented middleware in a compute cloud using software as a service model. It aims to eliminate the traditional overhead associated with operating in-house messaging infrastructures by providing reduced costs, simplified access to messaging resources, scalability and reliability. In order to provide those benefits, a Amazon SQS leverages cloud computing resources such as storage, network, memory and processing capacity. Using virtually unlimited cloud computing resources, a Amazon SQS provides an internet scale messaging platform. This paper presents benefits and examples of Amazon SQS programming interface developed in Actionscript 3.0 object-oriented programming language. Main reason why this interface was developed is to enable Adobe Flex mobile developers to facilitate integration efforts within organizations and between them using mobile devices (tablets and smartphones)
Chair: Dragan Knežević (VIPNet, Zagreb, Croatia)
|Nove tehnologije širokopojasnog pristupa
Lecturers: Vip.net i B.net
|G7 Smart Telecomm Platforms
Chair: Davor Šarić (T-Croatian Telecom, Zagreb, Croatia)
|D. Perakovic (Faculty of Traffic and Transport Sciences, Zagreb, Croatia), Z. Kljaic (Ericsson Nikola Tesla d.d., Zagreb, Croatia), S. Steficar (Pro-Railway Alliance, Zagreb, Croatia)
Smart Automated Platform For Telecom Operators And Enterprise Users For Economic Development In Industry, Transport And Energy
In an environment of economic crisis, new business models are required that can successfully respond to business challenges and stimulate economic growth. During these changes, technology takes on a strategic value. Bringing together the following trends and technologies: cloud computing, advanced analytics, client computing, green business, reshaping data centers, social computing, virtualization of resources, and mobile communications and applications - the SmAP platform opens up new opportunities for economic development in industry, transport and energy sectors. This paper describes the technical and business opportunities of the SmAP advanced platform.
|A. Metnitzer (Nokia Siemens Networks, Vienna, Austria)
The „Horizontalization” of the Machine to Machine (M2M) World and How to Market It
Today, many small, medium and big companies develop „vertical” M2M applications on their own. This leads to redunant functionalities in each application and doesn’t give the opportunity to open functions to a bigger market. A „horizontalization” of such applications and disposal in a „marketplace” will open new possibilities and markets even for small companies. The paper will highlight:
•The M2M Application world today and its challenges
•The principles of M2M „Horizontalization”
•What is in it for M2M developing companies?
•How Nokia Siemens Networks can support in this area
|D. Giljević, S. Počuča (Nokia Siemens Networks Zagreb d.o.o., Zagreb, Croatia)
Machine to Machine (M2M) Communication Impacts on Mobile Network Capacity and Behaviour
Today there is a challenge how to handle all network aspects of M2M communication or so called MTC (machine type communication). In this paper it is discussed how to smartly and effectively handle MTC in future networks. There are 3 different aspects which should be considered. One would be changes in software managing GSM radio networks. The second would be improvements done in Packet Core network to optimize and dimension network for M2M communication in more appropriate way and the last one is to use connection layer of M2M platform in an optimized way to save on the network capacity.
|V. Smailovic (Ericsson Nikola Tesla, Zagreb, Croatia), V. Podobnik (University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia)
BFriend: Contex-Aware Ad-Hoc Social Networking for Mobile Users
Ad-hoc social networking provides a goal-oriented platform for vibrant communication and value-added interaction among users. Through managing user social relationships in a novel fashion based on establishment of temporary social relationships among users with mutual interest or need, ad-hoc social networks provide an innovative medium for upgrading existing, as well as developing new social relationships. This paper proposes the BFriend, a location-aware ad-hoc social networking platform based on the Facebook social graph. The Bfriend platform is used by mobile users equipped with a smartphone - after users install and activate the BFriend client application, they are able to receive push notifications when a certain rule is triggered (e.g., it is Friday evening, John and James are drinking beer in a bar and one of their female Facebook friends passes nearby). The proof-of-concept application is available for users possessing Android-based smartphones.
|M. Suznjevic, M. Matijašević, B. Brozović (University of Zagreb, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, Zagreb, Croatia)
Monitoring and Analysis of Player Behavior in World of Warcraft
Multiplayer games have come a long way since their beginnings, so did their impact on the Internet. A decade ago, a multiplayer game was considered a match in a small environment between a small group of people for a random amount of time. One computer in the session was the host, and others were connecting to it. No considerable traffic was generated, making even dial-up Internet access adequate. Today, the Internet is faced with MMOG (Massively Multiplayer Online Games). This type of games share an ability to simultaneously allow thousands of players to participate in a same game session. Slightly less than 95% of all MMOGs are MMORPGs (MMO Role Playing Games), which currently have over 21 million constant subscribers, with Blizzard Entertainment’s World of Warcraft as a leader with 11 million subscribers. Both network and servers are under a considerable load due to amount of players. We tried to break complex player behavior into discrete actions, making it possible to find a correlation between their behavior and network requirements. This paper takes currently published articles in the field of research as a starting point and compares their approach to a problem with ours, as well as given results. Secondly, we describe mechanics of a tool developed for tracking players actions, which when put together, are considered theirs behavior. Given results are cross-referenced with previous researches that were investigating a correspondence between player actions and their direct impact on network traffic. While most other researches are based on probabilities of player being logged on, we take a turn and make statistics on exactly which actions players are involved in and which areas are visited during these actions.
|G8 Knowledge Management
Chair: Darko Huljenić (Ericsson Nikola Tesla, Zagreb, Croatia)
|M. Komadina, M. Poldrugac (Nokia Siemens Networks, Zagreb, Croatia)
Social Analytics for Mobile Operators
To cope with high competitive market pressure, disloyalty and decline of ARPU, operators run marketing programs and retention strategies. Lot's of those programs proved to be inefficient due to lack of in-depth customer knowledge. In order to bridge this gap, there is growing demand for automated direct marketing campaigns to the right customer groups predicted by fully integrated predictive modeling solutions that considers all customer touch points. Predictive modeling enables offers being delivered right in time before decisions are taken by the customers, using automated learning from significantly large historic data sets already available. It allows accurate predictions on future events, indentify optimal targets for member-get-member campaigns, adding the social view to customer analysis. Social Context or social influence pattern improves finding the right customers for targeted advertisement, which in hence increase success and profitability and enable rapid Introduction of new products.
|D. Tučkar (Hrvatski telekom d.d., ZAGREB, Croatia)
The Challenge of CEM
Building customer centric organization is a challenge for telcos today, in rapidly changing technology world and competitive market. Customer's expectations regarding telecommunication services, features, prices, availabilities, support and their experience in service usage often determine customer loyalty toward operator. Additional pressure to operators comes from customer's awareness of consumer's and national telecommunication regulator's legislate. Customer experience management can make the difference between operators, creating unique and from customers unexpected, surprisingly affirmative and positive outcome in customer's requirements treatment, across all contacts channels. CRM is the basic tool, but whole BSS/OSS environment have to be synchronized, meaning key internal business processes requires to be transformed as the customer sees or feel their consequences. Telco's are facing the challenge of 4 C's: complexity, competition, cost, customer expectations and CEM is the only respond!
|N. Dragun (Hrvatski Telekom d.d., Zagreb, Croatia)
Knowledge Granulation in a Telecom Operator Information Systems
It is a widely accepted truth that knowledge is power and the saying can easily be applied in business domains as well. Telecom business is famous for dealing with immense quantities of data which, if properly managed and organized, can represent a good source of knowledge. Common logic tells us that empowering telecom business by extracting knowledge from something that already is a constituent part of everyday activities should come very natural.
Process for achieving such goal can be identified as knowledge management which comprises knowledge acquisition, sharing and transfer as well as its creation, organization and application.
All of the earlier mentioned can be accomplished through granular approach based on the knowledge granule as a founding element for all knowledge related actions. Such granule represents a concept i.e. something to be learned, can be related to other granules and can form structures for complex descriptions of concepts.
|I. Ćubić, N. Pivac, G. Škugor (ERICSSON NIKOLA TESLA d.d., Split, Croatia)
Computer Aided Competence Management
Continuously education is highly desired in all industrial areas today, but for information and telecommunication technology professionals is almost mandatory. As much as individuals should care about theirs competencies, ICT companies should even take more care about employee's competence developing. Computer aided competence management is great help in operational issues such as personal development planning and incentive programs. It is also important tool in preparing for and acquiring new business opportunities in highly competitive market, implementing strategic decisions and business shifts, as well as investing in human capital. In the core of computer aided competence management are competence data definitions, models and profiles. Based on those core elements and concepts, a number of services such as competence gap analysis and team competences evaluation could be developed.
|K. Rožanković (HZMO, Zagreb, Croatia), I. Podnar Žarko (FER, Zagreb, Croatia)
Preporučivanje novinskih članaka hibridnim pristupom
News recommendation systems recommend potentially interesting news to end users based on their interests, preferences, and past behavior. Recommendation methods can be either content-based, when recommended objects are similar to those which a user has already bought/read/viewed in the past, or collaborative, when objects are recommended based on the ratings provided by other users. This paper presents a web-based system for news recommendation which uses a hybrid approach combining content-based and collaborative recommendation methods. It provides an overview of the recommendation algorithm, system architecture, and an initial evaluation of user satisfaction with the used service.
|G9 Green ICT
Chairs: Dina Šimunić (Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, Zagreb, Croatia), Milica Pejanovic-Đurišić (Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Podgorica, Montenegro)
|M. Pejanovic-Djurisic, E. Stovrag, M. Ilic-Delibasic (Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Podgorica, Montenegro)
Fundamental Optimization Criteria For Green Wireless Communications
Traditional wireless networks mainly focus on providing ubiquitous access and large capacity. One of the main challenges for future information and communication systems and technologies, including wireless networks, is reduction of the power consumption. Recent analysis by manufacturers and network operators have shown that current wireless networks are not very energy efficient, particularly the base stations that are used as access points from network to services. This paper presents an overview of the most important topics in research and practice for energy efficient mobile radio networks. Green radio researches propose four fundamental tradeoffs: deployment efficiency–energy efficiency, spectrum efficiency–energy efficiency, bandwidth–power, and delay–power, which are presented in this paper.
|T. Dhope (FER ,University of Zagreb, , Croatia), D. Simunic (FER,University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia)
Performance Analysis of Covariance Based Detection in Cognitive Radio
In cognitive radio networks, the first cognitive task preceding any form of dynamic spectrum management is the spectrum sensing and identification of spectrum holes in wireless environment. In cognitive radio, spectrum sensing is fundamental crucial task. Energy detection method is a basic method, which requires knowledge of noise power but suffers from noise uncertainty problem. Covariance based detection exploits space-time signal correlation that does not require the knowledge of noise and signal power. The covariances of signal and noise are generally different which can be used in detection of licensed user. However, there are not many studies that show the feasibility of the detectors and analyze their performance under fading channels. In this paper, we analyzed the detector performance exploiting TV White Space under Rayleigh and Rician fading channel by setting probabilities of false alarm and measuring probability of detection. We further analyze the effect of smoothing factor and overall correlation coefficient on the performance of covariance based detector. Covariance based detector outperformed the energy detector with noise uncertainty even under the time-varying fading channels.
|U. Pešović (Technical Faculty, Čačak, Serbia), D. Marković (Agriculture Faculty, Čačak, Serbia), Ž. Jovanović, S. Ranđić (Technical Faculty, Čačak, Serbia)
Benchmarking Performance And Energy Efficiency Of Microprocessors for Wireless Sensor Network Applications
Energy efficiency is one of the most important design requirements in wireless sensor networks (WSN) for achieving long service life. Microprocessors for WSN applications need to satisfy compromises between computing performance and power consumption. In this paper, most commonly used microprocessors in WSN applications are benchmarked for code size and execution speed using three different benchmark tests. In addition, power consumption of tested microprocessors is taken into account, in order to determine their energy efficiency. Results show that recently introduced ARM Cortex-M series microprocessors are best choice for energy efficient WSN applications according to all required criteria: energy efficiency, execution speed and code size.
|G. Horvat, D. Šoštarić, D. Žagar (ELEKTROTEHNIČKI FAKULTET OSIJEK, Osijek, Croatia)
Using Radio Irregularity for Vehicle Detection in Adaptive Roadway Lighting
The need to reduce power is making a great impact in the world of roadway lighting. The adaptive lighting is now being used to define the concept of varying the levels of lighting in order to significantly reduce the consumed power. In this paper a novel approach in vehicle detection and tracking using WSN radio irregularity is proposed for use in adaptive roadway lighting. Radio irregularity is a common phenomenon which arises from multiple factors and is considered a shortcoming of wireless communication. However, this phenomenon can be exploited for detecting obstacles in the propagation path, such as vehicles on roadways. The idea is based on monitoring received signal strength indicator (RSSI) between ZigBee WSN nodes, where the propagation path intersects the roadway. The method is analyzed experimentally using XBee Series 2 modules in different scenarios and the comparison is given. The advantage over the existing detection methods is the reduction in cost by avoiding the need to additionally install multiple sensors for vehicle detection.
|G. Kalic, I. Bojic, M. Kusek (FER, Zagreb, Croatia)
Energy Consumption in Android Phones when Using Wireless Communication Technologies
Wireless communication technologies enable communication between different devices that are within a certain radius. Although, this radius is definite, communication when using wireless technologies is more flexible than when using wireline approach. This paper presents results from a measurement study where we measured energy consumption characteristics of three wireless communication technologies: 3G, Bluetooth and Wi-Fi. We proposed a battery model which is based on these measurements. Using proposed model one can calculate the energy consumption for each communication technology. We show how our battery model can be used on an example of one service called collaborative downloading. Primary goal of collaborative downloading service is to lower the overall energy consumption of mobile users while downloading data combining together Bluetooth and 3G or Bluetooth and Wi-Fi technologies.
|M. Bogdanović (Siemens d.d., Osijek, Croatia)
Power Line Communication System Modeling Based on Coded OFDM
Over the last years there is more intensive research on realization of PLC (Powerline Communication) as access network. Since the power line channel shows hostile properties for communication signal transmission (noise, multhipath, strong channel selectivity), the major issue is to choose adequately modulation technique for evolution and realization of such system.
This paper introduces power line communication system model based on coded OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) modulation technique. Coded OFDM presents good performances in the difficult signal transmission environments and stands as a good candidate for realization of PLC system.
|D. Simunic, T. Dhope (FER,University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia)
Hybrid Detection Method for Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radio
Since the spectrum is the scarce resource, spectrum sensing is an important part of Green Engineering. The cognitive radio has been proposed as the future technology to meet the ever increasing demand of the radio spectrum by allocating the spectrum dynamically to allow unlicensed access on non-interfering basis. In cognitive radio, spectrum sensing is the fundamental problem. Energy detection method is the simplest method but suffers from noise uncertainty problem. Covariance based detection exploits space-time signal correlation, but its performance is very sensitive to the signal correlation. Hybrid detection method exploits the advantages of these two methods by utilizing energy detection in low correlation and covariance based detection in high correlation. We analyze the performance of hybrid detection method exploiting TV White Space under Rayleigh and Rician fading channel for different Signal-to-Noise Ratio values by setting probabilities of false alarm and measuring probability of detection. Simulation shows that the hybrid detection method outperformed energy detection and covariance based detection method and is more insensitive to the type of input data. The hybrid detection method shows the better performance compared to energy detection and covariance method under time-varying fading conditions.
|U. Urosevic, Z. Veljovic, M. Pejanovic-Djurisic (University of Montenegro, Faculty of EE, Podgorica, Montenegro)
A Solution for BER Performance and Energy Efficiency Improvements of OFDM-CDMA System with Pilot Tone
In this paper, incorporation of MIMO concept is proposed as a solution for improving BER performance and energy efficiency of OFDM-CDMA downlink system with pilot tone and threshold detection combining (optimum TDC). The new presented system with MIMO included uses space-time block coding applied to two, three and four transmit antennas and it has an arbitrary number of receive antennas. BER (Bit Error Rate) performance in the case of Ricean frequency selective fading is evaluated for the original system as well as for the one with MIMO included. For that reason an adequate simulation model is developed. The results show that the proposed system significantly outperforms the OFDM-CDMA downlink system with pilot tone and optimum TDC. The proposed system provides greater energy efficiency and lower BER in comparison with the original system.
|P. Međedović (Ministarstvo ze ekonomske odnose i regionalnu saradanju, Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina), . Veletić (Univerzitet u Banjaluci, Elektrotehnički fakultet, Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina), Ž. Blagojević (Radio i televizija Republike Srpske, Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina)
Wireless InSite Software Verification via Analysis and Comparison of Simulation and Measurement Results
The paper discusses the process of outdoor software prediction of radio wave propagation, practical realization of the simulation and measurement procedure and a comparative analysis of obtained results in two areas of downtown Banja Luka. In this regard, the Wireless InSite software package of the U.S. company Remcom has been used to perform precise estimation of value and spatial distribution of total power and RMS of electric field strength caused by 134 transmitters of 47 mobile telephony base stations. Handling by the Wireless InSite software and calculation of specified parameters in frequency bands of 900 MHz and 1800 MHz, with a resolution 5mx5m, is briefly described. Practical realization of measuring of the same parameters, at the same locations and under the same circumstances as the simulation had, are also described. This has enabled detailed and relevant comparison of simulation and measurement results and ultimately verification of the Wireless InSite software using comprehensive analyses of quality and accuracy. The obtained results are also compared with the limits prescribed by the Rule 37/2008 on limiting the emission of electromagnetic radiation of the Council of the Communications Regulatory Agency of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The results are presented in graphs and tables.
|M. Pejanovic-Djurisic (University of Montenegro, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Podgorica, Montenegro)
Cooperative Relaying Techniques for Energy Efficient Wireless Communications
With the increasing demand for new smart services and applications, a significant focus is on the further development of wireless communication networks, so that the required high throughputs and energy efficiency will be provided. However, it is well known that wireless signal transmission imposes serious challenges in fullfiling those demands, due to the complex nature of wireless radio channel. Thus, in defining the adequate technical solutions for future broadband wireless networks, all relevant characteristics of this specific transmission medium have to be taken into account. That is why research efforts have been directed towards new solutions and techniques that would support high data rates and higher capacities of future wireless systems, with the better coverage and energy efficiency at the same time.
Recently, it has been shown that cooperative communication schemes can solve many of the issues faced by future broadband WWAN and WLAN networks. It is a novel communication concept based on resource sharing and coordination among units of wireless network, where one or more intermediate nodes (relays) intervene in the communication between a transmitter and a receiver. Thus, each relay node is supposed to transmit its own messages as well as to assist as a cooperative agent for the transmission of messages originating from other terminals. In such networks, energy efficiency can be considered as critical from the point of network lifetime, having in mind that relay nodes are usually equipped with batteries supplying a limited energy amounts. The broadcast nature of the wireless channel can be exploited to save energy by simultaneously transmitting data symbols to multiple relays. Then, different cooperative algorithms can be used to further save energy in transmitting data from the relays to the destination.
This paper gives detailed explanations of relay aided communication concept, with the description of techniques applied for the message processing and/or forwarding at the relay nodes. A focus of attention is given to so called fixed relaying techniques : amplify-and-forward with either fixed gain (AF FG) or variable gain (AF VG) and decode-and-forward. Assuming a wireless channel with Rayleigh fading, comparisons of the presented relaying techniques are performed, enabling identification of optimal signal transmission scenarios for cooperative communication systems.
|A. Kerner (Ericsson Nikola Tesla, Zagreb, Croatia), D. Šimunić (Fakultet elektrotehnike i računarstva, Zagreb, Croatia)
Ambient Intelligence Key ICT Factor of Energy Savings In Construction Industry
Abstract - Ambient intelligence (AmI) is a new multidisciplinary paradigm rooted in the ideas of the Invisible Computer and Ubiquitous Computing. In AmI, technologies are deployed to make computers disappear in the background, while the human user moves into the foreground in complete control of the augmented environment. AmI is a user-centric paradigm, it supports a variety of artificial intelligence methods and works pervasively, no intrusively, and transparently to aid the user. AmI supports and promotes interdisciplinary research encompassing the technological, scientific and artistic fields creating a virtual support for embedded and distributed intelligence. In this paper authors are looking for possibilities to implement AmI as a way for saving energy in Construction industry. AmI as a part of ICT becomes key factor of efficient energy savings in Construction industry.
|A. Kanthe (Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing,University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia), D. Simunic (IEEE Senior Member, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing,University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia), M. Djurek (Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing,University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia)
Denial of Service (DoS) Attacks in Mobile Ad -hoc Green Networks
The mobile ad-hoc networks (MANET) having features like self organizing, working as a router and dynamic topology. In MANET, nodes are limited resources like bandwidth, battery power and storage space. Denial of Service (DoS) attacks is a common place in mobile ad-hoc networks. As compared to wire line DoS attacks there is lack of research for DoS attacks in MANETs. DoS attack is an event that eliminates a network’s capacity to perform its expected function. MANET is vulnerable of different types of DoS attack in which packets are not transfer to the next node. In this paper we examine DoS attacks in MANET.
|G10 Network Performance - I.
Chair: Lea Skorin-Kapov (Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, Zagreb, Croatia)
|M. Al-Mistarihi, A. Sharaqa, R. Mohaisen, O. Abu-Alnadi, H. Abu-Seba (Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan)
Performance Analysis of Multiuser Diversity in Multiuser Two-Hop Amplify and Forward Cooperative Multi-Relay Wireless Networks
To adapt for the fading impairments and to provide a higher data rates wireless systems, a new shift in the perspectives came in the form of proposing a new evolving technology such as the multiuser diversity and the cooperative wireless networks which combines the features of the (MIMO) system without confronting the physical layer constraints by providing multiple copies of the transmitted signal from the source to the destination with the help of the relay node. In this paper, we present an analysis of a two hop cooperative multi-relay communication networks, derive a tight closed form expression of outage probability and symbol error probability (SEP) for the amplify-and-forward (AF) protocol with MUD.
|M. Hadzialic, M. Dzaferagic, D. Raca (Elektrotehnicki fakultet, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina)
Impact of Frequency Synchronization on QoS in IP Based Networks
Rapid development and evolution of IP based networks had major impact on all services and their migration to Next Generation Networks (NGN) infrastructure. Frequency synchronization in this environment is one of the most significant challenges, which has to be solved. In traditional circuit-switched networks synchronization problems have been solved using standard plesiochronous digital hierarchy (PDH) and synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH) systems. This paper takes an overview of different protocols and techniques used by real-time applications, described in relevant articles, which are used to achieve near optimal level of synchronization. For testing and comparing these techniques, we developed an application in Java programming language, for generating and sending frames through our topology created in virtual environment (MikroTik router OS). This application was also used to process the emulation results, which gave us an insight on the influence of frequency synchronization on Quality of Service (QoS).
|I. Medvid (Ericsson Nikola Tesla, Zagreb, Croatia), M. Mikuc (Fakultet elektrotehnike i računarstva, Zagreb, Croatia)
Quality of service mechanisms and priority management in HSPA system
3G mobile broadband evolution offers high speed data transfer. A need to develop QoS mechanisms to ensure effective handling of radio resources occures.
Bottleneck for 3G data network may be located in different parts of the network, depending on the infrastructure (eg the radio access part or core network part).
Operators will decide how to deal with network congestion problem: expanding the network, increasing CAPEX or finding and using ways to control traffic.
Due to radio resources limitation using QoS mechanisms network has the ability of user differentiation and the subsequent resource allocation in a way that all users in the system receive the required QoS in terms of transmission speed and delay in accordance with the allowed QoS profiles and capacitive network capabilities.
This work investigates the role and importance of some key aspects of QoS planning ,QoS management, QoS differentiation and priority management for HSPA network.
|A. Hota, B. Puškarević (Ericsson d.o.o., Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina)
Analiza kvalitete IMS VoIP servisa na osnovu izmjerenih QoS parametara
Sažetak: IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) je standardiziran okvir koji treba da u budućnosti djelomično ili u potpunosti zamjeni sadašnje jezgrene (core) mreže.
IMS rješenja postoje za sve mreže (GSM, WCDMA, WLAN, širokopojasne fiksne mreže). Fokus ovog rada će biti kvalitet VoIP (Voice over IP) usluge kao primarnog IMS servisa u različitim komercijalnim pristupnim mrežama.
Cilj ovog rada je izvršiti analizu kvalitete VoIP servisa u različitim pristupnim mrežama, korištenjem različitih tipova terminalne opreme i različitih IMS klijenata.
Analiza kvalitete VoIP servisa vrši se na osnovu izmjerenih Quality of Service (QoS) parametara. Posmatrani su sljedeći parametri: propusnost (throughput), kašnjenje, varijansa kašnjenja (jitter) i gubitak paketa.
Abstract: IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) is a standardized framework designed to partialy or completely replace the current core networks.
IMS solutions exist for all networks (GSM, WCDMA, WLAN, wireline broadband).
The focus of this paper will be the quality of VoIP (Voice over IP) service in a various commercial access networks.
The goal of this paper is to analyze quality of VoIP service in a variety of access networks, using various types of terminal equipment and the various IMS clients.
Analysis of the quality of VoIP service is made on the basis of the measured Quality of Service (QoS) parameters. The following parameters are taken into account: throughput, delay, jitter and packet loss.
|D. Vučić (Belmet97, Zagreb, Croatia), I. Medvid (Ericsson, Zagreb, Croatia)
Iskustvena kvaliteta video sadržaja za usluge u pokretnoj mreži treće generacije
Iskustvena kvaliteta (QoE, Quality of Experience) korisnika video usluge je višedimenzionalni problem kome se pristupa i subjektivno i objektivno. Subjektivni pristup analizira ocjenjivane gledatelja, a objektivni istražuje rezultate mjerenja, koja se mogu podijeliti u dvije glavne grupe parametara koji najviše utječu na percepciju korisnika. Jedni opisuju kvalitetu usluge, a drugi opisuju kvalitetu video zapisa.
U radu će biti promatrana ovisnost subjektivne ocjene o metričkim parametrima, tražit će se relacija između kodiranih - ulaznih i transmisijom oštećenih - izlaznih sekvenci. U tu svrhu mjereni su QoS parametri (gubitak paketa, kašnjenje) i parametri objektivne metrike kvalitete video sadržaja (zrnatost, zamućenje). Usporedbom izmjerenih rezultata ulaznih i izlaznih video sekvenci pokazane su mogućnosti i ograničenja glede predviđanja subjektivne ocjene video kvalitete u stvarnoj komercijalnoj mreži uz stvarne uvjete.
|G10 Network Performance - II.
Chair: Lea Skorin-Kapov (Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, Zagreb, Croatia)
|L. Skorin-Kapov (Fakultet elektrotehnike i računarstva, Zagreb, Croatia), M. Varela (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Oulu, Finland)
A Multi-Dimensional View of QoE: the ARCU Model
Understanding and modeling the wide range of influence factors that impact end user Quality of Experience (QoE) and go beyond traditional Quality of Service (QoS) parameters has become an important issue for service and network providers, in particular for new and emerging services. In this paper we present a generic ARCU (Application-Resource-Context-User) Model which categorizes influence factors into four multidimensional spaces. The model further maps points from these spaces to a multidimensional QoE space, representing both qualitative and quantitative QoE metrics. We discuss examples of applying the ARCU Model in practice, and identify key challenges.
|M. Nagy, M. Kotočová (Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Faculty of Informatics and Information Technologies , Bratislava, Slovakia)
An IP Based Security Threat in Mobile Networks
Mobile networks based on GSM/GPRS/UMTS and lately LTE standards are slowly becoming a regular part of our lives. We use our brand new smartphones daily, don’t even bothering, whether these devices and applications are properly secured. In this paper we briefly explain a security issue that was found in one commercial mobile network. This security issue is most visible on Android OS platform. However, many other mobile networks and mobile platforms may be impacted in certain circumstances. IP addresses of connected end user devices can be determined by an attacker, and subsequent application attack could lead to device failure. We examine this problem and propose simple solution on mobile network side and smartphone side.
|T. Gojević, M. Skomeršić, M. Žuvanić (Infobip d.o.o., Zagreb, Croatia), K. Matas (Infobip d.o.o., Pula, Croatia)
Mobile Network Protection System against Fraudulent and Unwanted Messaging Traffic
In this paper, mobile network protection system against fraudulent and unwanted messaging traffic is discussed. Application to Person (A2P) messaging traffic is raising every year and with that raise fraudulent and unwanted traffic is gaining momentum as well. Home Location Register (HLR) lookup, Short Message Service (SMS) and Unstructured Supplementary Service Data (USSD) is exchanged between mobile network operators and along with regular traffic, there are also cases of traffic affecting network performance, link utilization and subscriber satisfaction. This paper will, discuss technical, commercial and security challenges of the aforementioned messaging traffic and how mobile network protection system can help to solve them.
|A. Kerner, P. Cota (Ericsson Nikola Tesla d.d., Zagreb, Croatia)
Analyses and Optimisation of ADSL/VDSL Lines Using Ericsson APM System – Comparing Results of Two Operators
Abstract – In this article we explain approach in using Copper Plant Manager System (CPM) for analyses of ADSL lines in production of two diferent broadband (BB) Operators. Results of monitoring and optimization are shown. In our case optimization is done by DAO subsystem. We compare results of three Operators with the same goal to maximize service availability with minimum decrease of service characteristics specially speed in downstream. CPM has purpose for monitoring of all performances of BB system as well as interdependency of lines. CPM is designed around a selection of configurable batch jobs that store vital Line Test (SELT and Loop Diagnostic) and DSL-link parameters in the CPM database. By selecting the appropriate view, it is possible to follow and understand faulty behaviour in detail. CPM is also equipped with a real-time view that is essential when troubleshooting on a per-line basis or when re-configuring a DSL link online. CPM become APM (Access Performance Manager) and offers several tools that are designed to solve different problems in a DSL-based network.
|M. Al-Mistarihi, M. Mowafi, M. Marei (Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan)
An Optimum Scheme for WiMAX Bandwidth Management Using Dynamic Channel Allocation
WiMAX is a promising technology that provides broadband wireless access and supports high data rate, wide service coverage, and strong QoS. The uplink bandwidth management in WiMAX networks is one of the important issues that requires effectively allocating the bandwidth among contending users according to their services. In this paper, an efficient bandwidth management scheme, named WiMAX Dynamic Channel Allocation Scheme (WDCAS), is proposed. The scheme uses the cognitive radio for dynamic channel allocation in order to improve the bandwidth utilization while satisfying the QoS requirements. A queuing model based on the maximum entropy principle for performance analysis is introduced, and closed-form expressions for the state probability and the blocking probability are obtained. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme has a better performance than existing schemes, in terms of bandwidth utilization and network throughput.
|M. Mowafi, M. Al-Mistarihi, M. Marei (Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan)
A Dual Usage of Cognitive Radio in Managing the WiMAX Bandwidth
The management of the available bandwidth in a WiMAX system is one of the active research areas since it deals not only with the available bandwidth but also with the QoS requirements of different traffic classes. In this paper, a new bandwidth management scheme, named WiMAX Dual Cognitive Radio Scheme (WDCRS), is proposed. A cognitive radio approach is applied in order to obtain high bandwidth utilization and high throughput, and lower the blocking probability. An analytical model for performance analysis of the proposed scheme is developed. The results show that the proposed scheme achieves higher bandwidth utilization and lower the blocking probability compared to existing schemes.
|G11 Software Engineering
Chair: Tihana Galinac Grbac (Faculty of Engineering, Rijeka, Croatia)
|J. Tepandi (Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn, Estonia), G. Piho (University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom), V. Puusep (Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn, Estonia)
Archetypes Based Development from the Perspective of Domain Engineering Research Topics
Archetypes Based Development (ABD) utilizes software engineering triptych together with archetypes and archetype patterns. In ABD, the domain is analysed and the domain model is developed by using the product (what), business process (how), organization structure (where), person (who), order and inventory (when), andrule (why) archetype patterns. In the current paper, ABD is evaluated from the perspective of domain engineering research topics proposed by Bjørner in 2007. The evaluation shows that ABD is in accordance with an approved and important domain facets based domain analysis methodology and provides additional insight into the research questions related to its main processes. We also explain use of ABD and domain models designed in compliance with ABD in real life software development. These outcomes indicate that our domain analysis and modelling approach complements Bjørner’s domain modelling and together with Test Driven Modeling results in more flexible, customizable, reliable and interoperable software.
|D. Duka (Ericsson Nikola Tesla, Split, Croatia)
Agile Experiences in Software Development
From the traditional waterfall model to streamlined ways of software development and to Agile, is a long journey for each organization. In that journey, transition into Agile way of working means a significant change. For any change to happen there is a significant involvement expected from the people, more so in case of Agile, as it involves individuals, interactions and collaborations over different processes. This paper deals with different Agile experiences. It proposes when to use Agile and what are the advantages of such approach. It also describes agility criteria helping to determine if the Agile is followed indeed. The special highlight is put on people and teams investigating their size and impact of geographical distribution on project success. Some reflections after using Agile in our own organization are also presented.
|G. Mauša, T. Galinac Grbac (Tehnički fakultet, Sveučilište u Rijeci, Rijeka, Croatia), B. Dalbelo Bašić (Fakultet elektrotehnike i računarstva, Sveučilište u Zagrebu, Zagreb, Croatia)
Multivariate Logistic Regression Prediction of Fault-proneness in Software Modules
Fault prediction modeling is an important area of research in software engineering. With overall testing costs estimated at 50% of entire development costs, testing consumes a lot of resources. Ideally, testing should be exhaustive in order to be confident that most faults are detected. In practice, however, due to many constrains that is not possible and every additional save of resource is more than welcome. Fault prediction can be of assistance there, allowing software engineers to focus development activities on fault-prone code, improving software quality and making better use of resource. Various techniques have been proposed for model building with logistic regression being among better ones. This paper explores additional features, provided by stepwise logistic regression, which could further improve performance of fault predicting model. Three different models have been used to predict fault-proneness in NASA PROMISE data set and have been compared in terms of accuracy, sensitivity and false alarm rate: one with forward stepwise logistic regression, one with backward stepwise logistic regression and one without stepwise selection in logistic regression. Despite an obvious trade-off between sensitivity and false alarm rate, we can conclude that backward stepwise regression gave the best model.
Chair: Marko Lacković (IBM, Zagreb, Croatia)
|A. Tanovic (BH Telecom d.d. Sarajevo, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina), F. Orucevic (Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Department of Computer Science and Informatics , Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina)
Integration of Hosting Service into Triple Play Service of Telecom Operator
Triple Play service is now one of the most important services for Telecom operators. This service contains: IPTV, VoIP, VoD, Internet and in some cases even fixed telephony and mobile telephony. The aim of Telecom operators is to improve this service by introducing some new subservices to get better business results. One example of these subservices is a Hosting service. This paper describes the process of introducing of Hosting system in one Telecom operator in Bosnia and Herzegovina and compares business results of Telecom operators without a Hosting service and with a Hosting service which is integrated into Triple Play. This paper has a scientific value because it describes steps of introducing Hosting service into Triple Play and describes the importance of Hosting service for Telecom operators.
|K. Rebernak, M. Botinčan, D. Šarić (Hrvatski Telekom d.d., Zagreb, Croatia)
Telecom Services Self-care Portal for Business Customers
Summary – Telecom service providers are constantly challenged to increase their top line revenues and reduce operational costs. Experiences with self-care and web shop portals for residential customers together with some limited functions for business customers were gathered in Croatian Telecom through last 7+ years and were well accepted. Having all this in mind, orientation towards fulfilling business customer needs for quality service support, as well as enabling easy purchasing of new services or prolongation of existing contracts through reliable web portal, gives us one of the possible solutions. In this paper we will present abstract model development of organizational structure for companies in Croatia and respective functional blocks that are required in order to ensure proper self-care role definitions for different employees within the company. Additionally we will describe our solution to challenges in customer and service data integration from different backend IT systems inherited from different organizations (T-Mobile Croatia – mobile services; T-Com Croatia – fixed line services, Internet, IPTV) in new data model for integrated company/service view. At the end we will present existing and planned services on T-HT’s “MyT Business” portal that was launched in summer 2011 and in first 4 months achieved customer base of more than 2000 companies.
|B. Radojević, M. Nalis, V. Vidić, S. Čavara (CARNet, Zagreb, Croatia)
Udaljena pohrana podataka korištenjem slobodnog softvera
CARNet već gotovo 20 godina uz povezivanje ustanova iz sustava u jedinstvenu komunikacijsku mrežu pruža i usluge izgradnje i održavanja pojedinih Internetskih servisa. Tako je jedan od prvih zadataka CARNeta bio ustrojiti osnovne Internetske servise i na samim ustanovama članicama, a sigurno pohranjivanje korisničkim i sistemskih podataka (backup) na siguran i pouzdan način je uvijek predstavljao izazov za sistem inženjera na samim ustanovama. Od 2011. godine CARNet nudi uslugu udaljene pohrane podataka za sve svoje članice korsiteći postojeću mrežnu infrastrukturu i softver otvorenog koda. Na taj način je praktički minimalnim ulaganjima uspostavljen servis koji se može uporediti i koristiti i u daleko kritičnijim informacijskim servisima od onih koje koriste naše ustanove.
|P. Britvić (Državna uprava za zaštitu i spašavanje, Zagreb, Croatia), H. Strepački (Ericsson Nikola Tesla d.d., Zagreb, Croatia)
Uloga pristupne točke javne sigurnosti u telekomunikacijskoj usluzi ePoziv
Usluga ePoziva nova je telekomunikacijska usluga automatske dojave prometne nesreće pristupnoj točki javne sigurnosti (u Republici Hrvatskoj: Državnoj upravi za zaštitu i spašavanje). Predložena i podržana od strane Europske komisije, usluga ePoziva trebala bi biti uspostavljena od 2015. godine na nacionalnoj razini zemalja članica Europske unije koje su potpisale Sporazum o razumijevanju za pitanje uvođenja ePoziva, uključujući i Republiku Hrvatsku, koja je Sporazum potpisala 2010. godine.
U ovom radu predstavljena je uloga pristupne točke javne sigurnosti (Public Safety Answering Point – PSAP) u pružanju usluge ePoziva na nacionalnoj razini. U radu su razmotreni tehnološki i operativni aspekti pristupne točke javne sigurnosti unutar arhitekture u podršci usluge ePoziva, te razmotrene funkcionalnosti ePoziva podržane od strane pristupne točke javne sigurnosti. Budući da se usluga ePoziva ostvaruje na temelju ranije implementiranog nacionalnog 112 sustava, u radu se razmatra potrebna nadogradnja 112 sustava potrebna za uspostavu usluge ePoziva. Rad završava analizom poboljšanja kvalitete javne sigurnost, koja se postižu implementacijom usluge ePoziva, te doprinosa pristupne točke javne sigurnosti poboljšanju iste.
|G13 New Telecomm Applications
Chair: Krunoslav Tržec (Ericsson Nikola Tesla, Zagreb, Croatia)
|N. Kakanakov (Technical University of Sofia, Plovdiv branch, Plovdiv, Bulgaria)
Evaluating a Medical Grade Network trough Network Calculus
The paper aims to present an analytic evaluation of a Medical Grade Network for the purpose of the Clinic for Pediatric Surgery in Plovdiv. It presents the design of the network based on the security and throughput needs of the organization and then a method for analytically obtain the maximum delays for the critical services. Results are based on the mathematical apparatus of deterministic Network Calculus and its ability to foreseen the delay boundaries in a network knowing the traffic envelopes and the services provided by the network elements.
|G. Piho (University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom), J. Tepandi , M. Parman (Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn, Estonia)
Towards LIMS (Laboratory Information Management Systems) Software in Global Context
In Clinical and Biomedical Proteomics Group (CBPG), Cancer Research UK Clinical Centre at University of Leeds we develop Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS) software for clinical research laboratories under the code name MyLIS. According to ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) LIMS Standard Guide, LIMS represents a class of computer systems designed to manage laboratory information. In this paper we briefly describe the functionality, challenges and goals; archetypes based development methodology; architecture, design and implementation; also current stage and future developments of MyLIS project. Our experiences give us a basis to believe that our archetypes based methodology allows interoperability of semantically heterogeneous software systems and therefore, for example, gives cancer researchers possibilities to share and distribute their data and knowledge with other researchers from the whole world automatically and conveniently.
|D. Ćika (Tehničko veleučilište u Zagrebu, Zagreb, Croatia), Z. Šipuš (Fakultet elektrotehnike i računarstva, Zagreb, Croatia), M. Draganić (Tehničko veleučilište u Zagrebu, Zagreb, Croatia)
Active Wireless Sensor with Radio Frequency Identification Chip
Various RFID technologies have been used traditionally for tracking goods in manufacturing and supply chains, handling inventory, tracking time during sport events and similar applications. In such traditional use cases it is often necessary only to identify some product, or event timing with unique code (EPC - electronic product code) stored in the tag. Such code is imprinted into the low cost RFID tag during the manufacturing process. The tag itself does not need to store any information because existing IT infrastructure surrounding the tag would handle all information related to specific EPC in the database system.
Standard use case for wireless sensing applications is different. If the RFID tag is to be used as the part of the active wireless sensor in the field, the tag should be able to operate locally until requested to transmit data by the RFID reader (RFID interrogator). Some limited amount of measured data could be stored in the active RFID chip itself, but for prolonged periods of operation without contact with the reader, data should be stored in some local non volatile memory. In ideal case the RFID chip supports two connections: bidirectional wired digital link to the on-board microcontroller, and wireless link when found itself in the RF field produced by the standard RFID reader.
In this article a proof of concept for such wireless sensor will be made, and novel NXP RFID chip G2iL+ supporting bidirectional digital data transfer will be used. RFID chip will be connected to the ARM Cortex M3 based board, and programmable RFID interrogator will be used to transmit commands and receive sensor data simulated by reading microcontroller analog and digital inputs connected to the potentiometer and switches.
|B. Puškarević (Ericsson, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina), A. Hota (ETF, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina)
IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) sigurnost: Pregled standardizacije IMS sigurnosti i potencijalnih prijetnji na sistem
IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) predstavlja mrežnu funkcionalnu arhitekturu koja nudi operatorima mogućnost pružanja kvalitetnih multimedijalnih paketski baziranih usluga kao što su instant poruke, presence, VoIP (Voice Over IP), video konferencije i chat. Kako se radi o internet uslugama i njihovoj otvorenosti, veoma je važan sigurnosni aspekt IMS sistema. Ovaj rad će pokušati dati pregled standardizacije IMS sigurnosti i potencijalnih prijetnji na IMS sistem kao i pratećih protokola kako bi pružio osnovne smjernice kod uvođenja novog ili održavanja postojećeg IMS sistema .
IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) represents a network functional architecture who offers to operators a possibility to provide high quality multimedia packed based services to their subscribers. Most famous examples of such internet services are presence, VoIP (Voice Over IP), videoconferencing and chat. Due to the fact that internet services are more open, security aspect of IMS system plays an important role. This paper will try to provide an overview of IMS and related protocols security apects and areas in order to provide basic guidelines for deploying a new or maintaining implemented IMS system.
|M. Skomeršić, T. Gojević, M. Žuvanić (Infobip, Zagreb, Croatia)
Impact of Non-Service Related Signaling in GSM Mobile Networks
In this paper, non-service related signaling in mobile networks, also known as HLR lookup is discussed. Although initially HLR lookups were intended for SMS, MMS and voice routing purposes, but there are other services that could create additional revenue streams for both mobile network operators and enterprises. This paper will also discuss technical, commercial and security challenges of HLR lookup service with a detailed description of international ATM anti-fraud use case.
Chair: Stjepan Golubić (Ericsson Nikola Tesla, Zagreb, Croatia)
Stjepan Golubić (Croatia), Branko Mikac (Croatia), Vlasta Hudek (Croatia)
Željka Car (Croatia), Dragan Jevtić (Croatia), Miroslav Karasek (Czech Republic), Marko Lacković (Croatia), Davor Šarić (Croatia), Dina Šimunić (Croatia), Antonio Teixeira (Portugal)
International Program Committee Chairman:
Petar Biljanović (Croatia)
International Program Committe:
Alberto Abello Gamazo (Spain), Slavko Amon (Slovenia), Michael E. Auer (Austria), Mirta Baranović (Croatia), Ladjel Bellatreche (France), Nikola Bogunović (Croatia), Andrea Budin (Croatia), Željko Butković (Croatia), Željka Car (Croatia), Matjaž Colnarič (Slovenia), Alfredo Cuzzocrea (Italy), Marina Čičin-Šain (Croatia), Dragan Čišić (Croatia), Todd Eavis (Canada), Maurizio Ferrari (Italy), Bekim Fetaji (Macedonia), Tihana Galinac Grbac (Croatia), Liljana Gavrilovska (Macedonia), Matteo Golfarelli (Italy), Stjepan Golubić (Croatia), Francesco Gregoretti (Italy), Niko Guid (Slovenia), Yike Guo (United Kingdom), Jaak Henno (Estonia), Ladislav Hluchy (Slovakia), Vlasta Hudek (Croatia), Željko Hutinski (Croatia), Mile Ivanda (Croatia), Hannu Jaakkola (Finland), Robert Jones (Switzerland), Peter Kacsuk (Hungary), Aneta Karaivanova (Bulgaria), Miroslav Karasek (Czech Republic), Bernhard Katzy (Germany), Christian Kittl (Austria), Dragan Knežević (Croatia), Mladen Mauher (Croatia), Branko Mikac (Croatia), Veljko Milutinović (Serbia), Alexandru-Ioan Mincu (Slovenia), Vladimir Mrvoš (Croatia), Jadranko F. Novak (Croatia), Jesus Pardillo (Spain), Nikola Pavešić (Slovenia), Ivan Petrović (Croatia), Radivoje S. Popović (Switzerland), Goran Radić (Croatia), Slobodan Ribarić (Croatia), Karolj Skala (Croatia), Ivanka Sluganović (Croatia), Vanja Smokvina (Croatia), Ninoslav Stojadinović (Serbia), Aleksandar Szabo (Croatia), Laszlo Szirmay-Kalos (Hungary), Dina Šimunić (Croatia), Jadranka Šunde (Australia), Antonio Teixeira (Portugal), Ivana Turčić Prstačić (Croatia), A. Min Tjoa (Austria), Roman Trobec (Slovenia), Walter Ukovich (Italy), Ivan Uroda (Croatia), Mladen Varga (Croatia), Tibor Vámos (Hungary), Boris Vrdoljak (Croatia), Robert Wrembel (Poland), Baldomir Zajc (Slovenia)
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Opatija, often called the Nice of the Adriatic, is one of the most popular tourist resorts in Croatia and a place with the longest tourist tradition on the eastern part of Adriatic coast. Opatija is so attractive that at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th centuries it was visited by the most prominent personalities: Giacomo Puccini, Pietro Mascagni, A. P. Čehov, James Joyce, Isidora Duncan, Beniamino Gigli, Primo Carnera, Emperor Franz Joseph, German Emperor Wilhelm II, Swedish Royal Couple Oscar and Sophia, King George of Greece.
The offer includes 20-odd hotels, a large number of catering establishments, sports and recreational facilities.
For more details please look at www.opatija.hr/ and www.opatija-tourism.hr/.
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