|Petra Karanikić (Department of Biotechnology, University of Rijeka, Croatia)
Economic Aspect of Blockchain Technology in Intellectual Property Protection
|S. Aksentijević (Aksentijević Forensics and Consulting, Ltd., Viškovo, Croatia), E. Tijan (Faculty of Maritime Studies, Rijeka, Croatia), K. Nikolozo (None, Zagreb, Croatia), A. Perić Hadžić (Faculty of Maritime Studies, Rijeka, Croatia)
Risk Management in Development of Croatian Maritime Cargo Single Window System
The aim of this paper is to research and describe the effectiveness of the risk management approach used during implementation of the Croatian national maritime Single Window system related to cargo, or Port Community System, initially in the port of Rijeka. The primary stakeholders and their internal systems, as well as formal development requirements, are defined. Project risk is identified within the project management framework's criteria, and the project's execution and important milestones, including risk occurrences during project execution, are recognized and discussed. Finally, modifications to the approach are suggested, as well as future study opportunities.
|N. Vlahović (Faculty of Economics and Business, Zagreb, Croatia)
E-Accounting System as a Service (E-ASaaS): A Conceptual Overview
In this paper we present an innovative concept of a public information system based on several digital technologies and approaches for outsourcing accounting as a public service. Accounting is one of the fundamental business functions of any business entity, that is highly regulated in all the economic systems. Over the recent decades accounting function in business organizations has evolved due to dramatic changes and advancements in information and communication technologies. These technologies-initiated changes in form of digital documentation, online or cloud accounting and similar alternatives to traditional organization of accounting. The goal of this paper is to draw attention to available technologies that may provide even more drastic innovation in organizing accounting function of business entities in a common administrative space such as counties, or entire countries and nation-wide economics. Here we propose a model of a public access E-accounting system that employs the functionality of cloud-based services, data pod concepts and blockchain technologies in order to automate processes of bookkeeping but also reporting on the side of business entities, while at the same time provide autonomous control and audit as defined by law and competent institutions in various segments of supervision (i.e. tax supervision, statistics reporting, etc).
|L. Milanović Glavan (Ekonomski fakultet, Zagreb, Croatia)
A Preliminary Survey into the Use of Business Process Tools in Croatian Companies
This paper presents the analysis of process-oriented information technology. Process information technology can be defined as all information technology that a company uses in order to reach the highest possible level of process orientation. It includes information technology for managing business processes and information technology for performance measurement. The paper identifies and describes process information technology and it examines the influence based on actual research done in Croatian businesses, information technology has on levels of business process orientation. Information technology has a favourable effect on process orientation, according to the research. It has been established that information technology is the least valued aspect of process orientation and that corporate informatization in the Republic of Croatia is still insufficient. The adoption and usage of process information technology in Croatian enterprises are crucial, according to the aforementioned data.
|A. Cerimagic Hasibovic, A. Tanovic, A. Granulo (Elektrotehnički fakultet, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina)
The Importance of ITIL4 Adoption for IT Service Management in Insurance Companies
In postpandemic era where where companies already adopted digital agendas in their everyday business, conservative businesses as insurance companies must intensify acitivities in creating new values and use of the potential innovations. Insurance companies have to follow new age users, developments in society and new economic laws with new demands for insurers. As ITIL v4 describes an operating model for the delivery of tech-enabled products and services, the importance of its adoption significantly increases. The way this adoption helps insurance companies is described in this paper. Trends in IT operations, such as agile approach are also considered.
|I. Fosić, A. Živković (Faculty of Economics, Osijek, Croatia), I. Fosić (HEP-Telekomunikacije d.o.o., Osijek, Croatia)
Classifying Relevant Causes of Employee Absenteeism Using Machine Learning
Employee absenteeism has a significant impact on the organization as it imposes high costs that can be reflected in the organization’s economic results. The impact can be seen in productivity, sustainability, competitiveness, profitability, and inter-organizational relations. Considering the wide range of causes of absenteeism, this paper provides a systematic overview of the causes considering different theoretical approaches. A primary survey was conducted (N=420), and the causes of absenteeism were divided into two groups of causes (personal causes and organizational causes). Unsupervised and supervised machine learning methods were applied to the data set. In the unsupervised machine learning phase, the Elbow data grouping method was applied, and the K-Means algorithm was used to assign each record in the dataset to a specific cluster. In supervised machine learning, the data were divided into learning and testing parts in a 70/30 ratio, and the Random Forest (RF), Decision Tree (DT), Support Vector Machines (SVM), and k-Nearest Neighbors (K -NN) classification algorithms were used. The best performance and area under the ROC curve (AUC) values are obtained using the RF classification algorithm. Using the machine learning algorithm RF, the main causes of absenteeism in both groups of causes of absenteeism were identified. From the group of personal causes (personal illness as well as illness of family members), from the group of organizational causes (mobbing, dissatisfaction with salary and work) stand out the most important causes of absenteeism.
|M. Bilogrivić (Hrvatski restauratorski zavod, Zagreb, Croatia), H. Stublić (Filozofski fakultet Sveučilišta u Zagrebu, Zagreb, Croatia)
Application of Blockchain Technology and NFTs in a Museum Environment
Museums as traditional institutions are usually not leaders in the use of the latest and disruptive technologies. However, the Covid-19 pandemic has influenced the growing interest of researchers and museum experts in new solutions for communication and museum operations. That is how blockchain technology and non-fungible tokens (NFT) entered the focus of museums. Although it is most often associated with cryptocurrencies, this technology, due to its main property, the immutability of records on the chain, has great potential for use in various aspects of museum work.
This paper will show how blockchain and NFT can be used in museums, from checking the provenance, ownership, and authorship of museum objects, facilitating their borrowing, more efficient digital rights management to building smart museums. It will also focus on how museums have so far experimented with NFTs and blockchain technology and highlight the potential problems of their use. Huge challenges to understanding and adopting this technology is the lack of knowledge base and this paper aims to bring the topic of blockchain technology within the museum field to the table and start a conversation on this fast-growing new technology and possibilities of its implementation.
|O. Omelianenko, V. Omelyanenko, O. Kudrina, I. Zihunova, D. Kostyrko (Sumy State Makarenko Pedagogical University, Sumy, Ukraine), S. Lytvynenko (Sumy State University, Sumy, Ukraine)
Digital Strategies of Service Sector Enterprises: Promising B2B Decisions
The study is devoted to digital strategies of enterprises in the service sector. The key trends of digitalization of business processes of enterprises in the service sector have been determined. The results of a pilot survey of enterprises in one of the regions of Ukraine are presented. Prospective innovative strategies of enterprises in the service sector are proposed.
|T. Baldo, M. Migliardi (Universita' degli Studi di Padova, Padova, Italy)
Factoring Economic Biases out of Tokenomics
Blockchain technology has enabled decentralized applications and peer-to-peer networks to be sustained by an incentive system based on tokens. At the same time, reputation is a paramount component for any limited-trust or no-trust system. However, in many systems, e.g., proofof-stake-based systems, tokens are a proxy for reputation, therefore there might be confusion between wealth and reputation. In this paper, we focus on the social layer of dApps and present a two-token system that allows a clear-cut separation between wealth and reputation and fits the case of DAOs where user contribution is essential to maintain and sustain the platform, such as social apps where users are asked to vote about newcomers’ acceptance or to moderate and filter the content proposed by others. The paper delves into the implementation of such tokenomics, describes how the standard ERC-20 token can be adjusted to become a trustworthy reputation meter, and how the model can be optimized to reduce transaction fees. The value of the proposed work lies in moving away from a wealth-affected reputation in favor of a contribution-based one. Using such a system, dApps can reward users more fairly.
|M. Pejić Bach, B. Jaković, I. Jajić (Ekonomski fakultet Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia)
Adaptation of European Enterprises to COVID19 Pandemic: Cluster Analysis Findings
The Covid-19 pandemic significantly impacted every aspect of business and personal life. The utilisation of digital technologies was an important leverage for overcoming barriers resulting from the pertinent need for physical distance. Enterprises increased their usage of various digital technologies, such as electronic communication, distance usage of computers located in companies, and online meetings. In addition, e-commerce has become the major venue for selling products and services. However, countries' differences emerged in their response to the Covid-19 pandemic. The paper aims to use cluster analysis to investigate the digital divide among European countries according to their adaptation to the Covid-19 pandemic. Eurostat database is used as the source of the variables measuring the response of enterprises to the Covid-19 pandemic concerning the means of communication and e-commerce utilisation. K-means cluster analysis is used to analyse the homogeneity of the countries according to the observed variables. Anova analysis, in combination with the post-hoc test, is used to compare clusters according to the GDP per capita. The results indicate that enterprises' agility is strongly related to the country's economic development.
|Z. Paladin, Ž. Lukšić, N. Kapidani (Administration for Maritime Safety and Port Management, Bar, Montenegro), M. Montagud (Universitat de Valencia, Valencia, Spain), M. Fernandez-Dasi (Fundacio I2CAR, Barcelona, Spain), S. Srinidhi, T. Woellert (Atmosphere GmbH, Wessling, Germany), G. Boustras (European University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus)
The 5G-supported Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Emergency Cases Response
In this paper, it is analyzed the general UAVs development and their advancement with the Fifth generation technology standard for broadband cellular networks (5G network), as well as real-time video streaming and other tools deployed for UAV use cases in the context of EU project RESPOND-A. Practically, the paper provides the case study with simulated risk realization events in which were used UAVs supported by 5G network modems, communication terminals, and 4K 360º video cameras with social viewing tools. Especially for advancing operational and surveillance capacities for SAR missions and environment protection, UAV assets are supported by the recent introduction of the 5G network, which enables a continual flow of information between them and shore-based rescue coordination centers. Such a manner would comprehend the integrated UAV data collecting capabilities, their transmission via the next generation of wireless communications, and seamless video and audio data provision, aiming to raise the level of situational awareness.
|P. Karanikić (Sveučilište u Rijeci Odjel za biotehnologiju, Rijeka, Croatia)
Implementation and Cost-effectiveness of Blockchain Technology within the IP Ecosystems
The Fourth Industrial Revolution (Industry 4.0) enables the new digital economy by merging technologies such as blockchain, big data, artificial intelligence, the Internet of things (IoT), and other emerging technologies through digital transformation. Blockchain technology is among the emerging technologies that are affecting the ways of business operationalization through the automatization of tasks, but also the management of intellectual property rights (IPRs). The digital economy has an important role in both social and as an engine for economic growth while the IPRs have an important role in the development of the digital economy. The aim of this paper is to investigate and analyze the cost-effectiveness and positive impact of blockchain technologies adoption and implementation for the relevant stakeholders within the IP ecosystem.
|V. Šebek, S. Antolović, C. Kramarić (Visoko učilište Algebra, Zagreb, Croatia)
Factors Affecting the Use of Online Recommendation Systems in E-Commerce in Croatia
The concept of utilizing IT for recommendations has existed since the inception of computer science, but it has become more prevalent in recent years as e-commerce has grown significantly. Because recommendation systems are effective at simulating customer behaviour and offering users personalisation, they have helped numerous e-commerce and content providers expand. In order to determine what influences customers' adoption and usage of online purchase recommendation systems, this research explores the factors affecting recommendation systems' adoption and use in e-commerce in Croatia. The structural model of partial least squares and the Unified Theory of Adoption and Use of Technology (UTAUT) were employed to accomplish this goal (PLS). 140 users of online recommendation systems made up the sample. Research has shown that users will only utilize recommendations if they are given supplementary goods that improve their purchasing experience. Users trust recommendation systems (43%), but they have reservations about whether they deliver on their promises which is related to the fact that only a small number of retailers track and evaluate the effectiveness of recommendation systems in their online stores.
|A. Kumar, A. Wolff, B. Naqvi (LUT University, Lappeenranta, Finland)
Co-creating Community-level Indicators: Involving Communities in the Digitalization of Energy for Empowering Energy Citizenship
Energy citizenship refers to the participation of individuals or communities in activities that support the green transition. While individuals may set their own targets for greener living, a number of initiatives are also being designed and encouraged at the city and regional levels, e.g. renewable energy cooperatives and increased electric mobility. Enacting change is a long-term process, requiring monitoring and possible adaptation along the way and initiatives may fail without buy-in from the local community. Digitalization of energy and energy-related systems can produce large quantities of data that has the potential for helping to achieve green targets and monitor progress against them. However, when the initiatives and the data collected to monitor or evaluate them are defined in a purely top-down manner it risks missing the priorities of local communities, which may affect willingness to participate. This paper explores a co-creation process through which local communities define transition goals and ways to monitor the progress that reflects their own priorities in the form of community-level indicators (CLIs), as well as the data needed to track them. It will explore a standard template for defining CLIs and describe their use within several green initiatives across Europe.
|F. Molinari, D. Cisic, B. Kovacic (University of Rijeka, Rijeka, Croatia)
Exploring Regional Innovation Dynamics Using Directed Acyclic Graphs
Every second year, the European Union (EU) publishes the Regional Innovation Scoreboard (RIS) as a tool to benchmark the performance of 240 regions of 22 EU Member States (MS) and of 4 Associated Countries (AC): Norway, Serbia, Switzerland, and the UK. Only Cyprus, Estonia, Latvia, Luxembourg, and Malta are included at the country level. The RIS consists of a synthetic index that starts from the arithmetic mean of a set of 21 indicators. This allows to rank the different regions for their innovative performance. EU Regions, MS and AC are expected to take into account their relative position on the ranking when designing their innovation policies. Due to its importance for policy making, the RIS is subject to recurrent assessments of the extent to which it constitutes a meaningful measure of a territory’s innovation performance. This paper contributes to the debate by proposing an approach based on algorithms to discover the causal relations among the RIS variables and visualize them as edges of Directed Acyclic Graphs (DAGs). In so doing, we hope to shed some light on the dynamics and drivers of performance of the EU and national/regional innovation systems.
|M. Berković, A. Omerhodžić, A. Džananović (Faculty of Traffic and Communication, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina)
Methodological Framework for the Comparative Evaluation of the Carbon Footprint of Virtual Remote Work and Traveling by Electric Autonomous Vehicle to the Workplace
The purpose of this paper is to definition of methodological framework for comparative evaluation carbon footprints of virtual teleworking and electric autonomus vehicles of physical mobility to place of work. The methodology is based on the service telecommuting, as a typical representative of the information and communication solutions with potentially significant opportunities for reduction of carbon emissions in the area of physical mobility. We know electric autonomus vehicles emit less greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions than diesel engine cars – even when powered by the most carbon intensive, but we still do not know is it more environmentally friendly to use teleworking digital services instead of electric autonomus vehicles for travel to placework. In the methodological, special attention will be focused on the analises aplication renewable energy sources for feed the electric autonomus vehicles. Originality/value - The paper offers of original model measuring level of the carbon footprints of electric autonomus vehicle in comparasion with ICT service on same distanc.
|A. Agatić, E. Tijan, S. Aksentijević (Faculty of Maritime Studies, Rijeka , Croatia), A. Pucihar (Faculty of Organizational Sciences, Kranj, Slovenia)
Internet of Behavior – The Transformation of Customer Relationship Management in Logistics
The Internet of Behavior (IoB) is an evolution of the Internet of Things (IoT), which is already widely used in logistics. In addition to the technology and data aspect, IoB also includes behavioral science to track and analyze behavioral patterns. By using IoB, logistics companies can provide not only more reliable but also more flexible services, enabling better insight into customer behavior patterns and changing market conditions in real-time. The IoB can enable logistics companies to streamline Customer Relationship Management (CRM). In this paper, the authors research the potential of IoB to transform CRM in logistics. Therefore, the authors analyze the main features of IoB and current trends in logistics CRM. The focus of this paper is to analyze how the application of IoB could transform logistics CRM (from the aspect of predictive services, automation, CRM processes, CRM software and security strategies).
|D. Labaš, M. Galić, M. Pejić Bach (Faculty of Economics and Business, Zagreb, Croatia)
Auto-generated Plans and Decisions as an Instrument of Crisis Management
Auto-generated plans and decisions are generated without human input. Machine learning algorithms or other automated decision-making systems develop them based on present criteria and rules. An automated system might create a reaction plan for a natural disaster or cyberattack. The system may assess historical occurrences, discover patterns and trends, and create a reaction plan based on specified parameters. An organisation may employ an automated decision-making technology to choose resources or actions in a crisis. The tool may evaluate data and make a judgement automatically using specified rules and criteria. In urgent circumstances, auto-generated strategies and choices may help. They may also help businesses react consistently to emergencies using objective criteria and data analysis, decreasing human error. This work aims to provide an overview of crisis management and the role of auto-generated plans and decisions in its deployment. The case study of one company is presented to illustrate the usage of auto-generated plans and decisions, taking care that they shouldn’t replace human decision-making. To be current and successful, they should be evaluated and updated often.
|H. Arbutina (Faculty of Law, Zagreb, Croatia), Z. Šinković, L. Pribisalić (Faculty of Law, Split, Croatia)
The Legal Status of Digital Nomads
While the pandemic of the COVID-19 virus took over and changed an increasing part of people's everyday lives, the spread of digital communication and teleworking grew. As a result, there is an increase in interest in a new way of working that is not tied to a physical workplace - digital nomadism. Nomads of the modern, digital age are people who use information and communication technology for work that they can do anywhere in the world, which gives them the luxury of freely choosing their residence. The Republic of Croatia was among the first countries in the European Union to open its doors to digital nomads, just behind Estonia. In the Republic of Croatia, the Foreigners Act regulates and defines the legal status of digital nomads as citizens of a third country (a country that is not a member state of the European Economic Area or the Swiss Confederation) who are employed or perform work through communication technology for a company or their own company that is not registered in the Republic Croatia and does not perform work or provide services to employers in the territory of the Republic of Croatia. Therefore, this paper will analyze the legal status of digital nomads from the administrative and tax aspects (de lege lata - de lege ferenda) in the Republic of Croatia and other member states of the European Union.
|D. Oreški, I. Pihir, D. Višnjić (Fakultet organizacije i informatike, Varaždin, Croatia)
Comparative Analysis of Machine Learning Algorithms on Data Sets of Different Characteristics for Digital Transformation
The application scenarios for machine learning algorithms are getting more complicated as machine learning and real-world situations converge more and more. All fields of study have adopted and benefit from diverse machine learning algorithms implementation. The challenge is to determine which algorithm is best suited to solve a given problem. This problem is especially challenging in social sciences. To tackle that issue, this paper explores a group of machine learning algorithms used for predictive models’ development in social science domains of business and education. Several machine learning algorithms are applied here (algorithms of artificial neural networks, k-nearest neighbors, decision tree) along with characteristics of datasets measured by meta-features. In the empirical part of the research, algorithms are compared on the data sets using standard predictive model evaluation metrics. Data sets are extracted from the education and business domain. Research results provide insights into machine learning algorithms' performance depending on their meta-features. Meta-features are significant predictors of machine learning algorithms' performance in both education and business domain. Machine learning-based predictive models developed in this paper are a step forward to the acceleration of digital transformation in the education and business sector.
|I. Konecki, D. Oreški, N. Kadoić (Fakultet organizacije i informatike, Varaždin, Croatia)
Clustering of Croatian Software Development Companies Based on Their Financial Indicators
The main objective of this study is to examine the financial performance of companies in Croatian software development sector and identify which financial indicators could be predictive of future profitability. The research uses the data from Financial Agency (FINA) focusing on the pre and post COVID-19 period. Cluster analysis of companies is performed based on their financial indicators. Four clusters of companies were identified. Findings indicate that there is no statistically significant difference between the clusters in the profitability growth rate after the COVID-19 crisis. However, the observed period might be too short to measure the long-term effects. The financial analysis of companies in Croatian software development sector gives an insight in the way the sector operates and thus provides useful information for policymakers who would like to support its growth and development.
|M. Boban, M. Klarić (Faculty of Law, Split, Croatia)
Artificial Intelligence in Healthcare Services – Regulation, Implementation and Future Challenges
Digitalization of healthcare services in European Union with implementation of artificial intelligence represents one of the modern forms of healthcare delivery defined in the European digital agenda in order to assure better quality in healthcare services delivery and improve quality of healthcare systems. Authors of the paper analyse the process of digitalization and implementation of artificial intelligence in healthcare service while opening some technical, ethical and legal questions, which need to be better defined. European union is still in process of developing the regulatory framework for implementation and harmonization of digital solutions in healthcare system and the authors give an overview of actual situation and give recommendations concerning the privacy and data protection, data quality and data management as well as harmonized rules on artificial intelligence which should stand as the pillars of the regulatory framework and be the main focus of the future regulation in order to protect the patients data and patients privacy in healthcare services.
Mladen Mauher (Croatia), Edvard Tijan (Croatia)
Dragan Čišić (Croatia), Alen Jugović (Croatia), Đani Juričić (Slovenia), Anđelko Milardović (Croatia), Mladen Mauher (Croatia), Ana Perić Hadžić (Croatia), Davor Salamon (Croatia), Vjeran Strahonja (Croatia), Edvard Tijan (Croatia), Marijana Vidas-Bubanja (Serbia)
Saša Aksentijević (Croatia), Mladen Mauher (Croatia), Edvard Tijan (Croatia)
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Polytechnic of Zagreb
HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia
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University of Rijeka
Faculty of Maritime Studies
HR-51000 Rijeka, Croatia
Phone: +385 51 338 411
The best papers will get a special award.
Accepted papers will be published in the ISSN registered conference proceedings. Presented papers in English will be submitted for inclusion in the IEEE Xplore Digital Library.
There is a possibility that the selected scientific papers with some further modification and refinement are being published in the following journals: Journal of Computing and Information Technology (CIT), MDPI Applied Science, MDPI Information Journal, Frontiers and EAI Endorsed Transaction on Scalable Information Systems.
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