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innovative promotional partnershipArtificial Intelligence towards EU Multilingualism

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Event program
Monday, 5/22/2023 10:00 AM - 1:00 PM,
Congress hall, Grand hotel Adriatic, Opatija
10:00 AM - 1:00 PMPapers
Chairs: Ivana Ogrizek Biškupić and Ines Vlahović 
1.V. Lang, A. Špernjak, A. Šorgo (Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Maribor, Slovenia)
Does Daily Use of Digital Technologies Influence the Reading and Information Literacy of 15-year-old Students? 
This paper focuses on the impact of out-of school and in-school use of digital technologies on the reading and information literacy skills of 15-year-old Slovenian students who participated in the PISA 2018 study. For our study, we selected PISA 2018 variables related to the use of digital technologies in school or outside school. The sample (N = 2612) consists of 50.8% girls and 49.2% boys. Part of the questionnaire refers to the use of digital technologies outside school: for entertainment and practical information purposes, for school purposes, and time spent with digital technologies. Part of the questionnaire refers to the use of digital technologies in school: for various purposes, for learning or teaching, and the time spent using digital technologies in class. The results show that the constructs of using digital technologies in school or out of school are strongly related but have a very low/insignificant impact on reading literacy and information literacy.
2.E. Idrizi, M. Hamiti (South East European University, Tetovo, Macedonia)
Classification of Text, Image and Audio Messages Used for Cyberbulling on Social Medias 
People's physical presence in smart cities is being shifted to the cyber world via social networks. Bullying that occurs through virtual devices such as phones, laptops, and tablet computers is referred to as cyberbullying. Online harassment can occur through text messaging, messages, and software, as well as online in social networking sites, discussion boards, or online games where individuals can view, participate in, or distribute content, including sending, posting, or sharing negative, harmful, false, or mean content about another person. It can include revealing personal or private information about another person, causing embarrassment or humiliation. This paper will collate through social media posts to find bullying comments in text, image, and video form. In this paper, we proposed a graph convolutional neural network, a pretrained Googlenet, a Mel-scale filter bank speech spectrogram, and a CNN network model for audio post classification. The main findings of the study are that text and image features produced by graph convolutional neural networks and Googlenet, as well as audio post-processing using MFCCs, produce superior results, including one-dimensional representation. In the current environment, we used GCN and Mel-frequency cepstrum to represent text, image, and video input, yielding a bullying class accuracy of 96%.
3.F. Grgurin (Faculty of Science Split, Split, Croatia), R. Repnik (Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Maribor, Slovenia)
Inclusion of Digital Competence in Educational Physics Study in Croatia and Slovenia 
Technology is all around us, in our daily lives, like mobile phones, televisions, computers and smart things. Therefore, teachers need to incorporate digital tools into their lessons and do other activities to develop digital competence. In our opinion, there are two key competencies that have been identified by the European Union (2019), and we believe there is a great opportunity to address them together within physics teacher education programme. These are mathematical competence and competence in science, technology and engineering, and digital competence. One of the important issues is experimental work in physics education, especially when we look at specific subgroups of students. For example, an ongoing challenge for teachers is to combine experimental activities with the development of different competences. Our research question was: Our research question was: What are the essential knowledge, skills and attitudes related to digital competence and do the physics teachers acquire them during their studies? Based on a document analysis, we focused on the inclusion of digital competence in physics teacher studies. We examined the description of subjects in the physics curriculum at some faculties in Croatia and in Slovenia.
4.N. Stojkovikj, L. Koceva Lazarova (Goce Delcev University, Stip, Macedonia), M. Ananieva (Goso Vikentiev, Kocanu, Macedonia)
Web Application for Learning Mathematics 
Web application which assists in the process of learning mathematics is presented in the paper. The application and its functionalities will be explained in detail. Also, there will be presented parts from the web application using diagrams such as the E-R diagrams and the UML diagrams.
5.V. Kozov, B. Ivanova (University of Ruse, Ruse, Bulgaria)
Augmenting Student Education Using the RealityScan Application for Generating 3D Content 
Augmented reality in education is surging in popularity in schools worldwide. Through augmented reality (AR), educators are able to improve learning outcomes through increased engagement and interactivity. Augmented Reality (AR) in education features aspects that enhance learning abilities like problem-solving, collaboration, and creation to better prepare students for the future. It is also good for traditional pedagogy focused on technical knowledge and proficiencies. An analysis is made on the types of technologies that can be included in the student curriculum. Focus is put on the RealityScan application by Epic Games for iOS. Several characteristics and functionalities of the application are described and tested. Methodologies and workshops based on them are created and presented. A process of including the aforementioned technologies in the curriculum and easing the students into using such tools in their future professional career is created and partially implemented. Several benefits of becoming familiar with such technologies are analysed. A conclusion is made on several critical points that have to be addressed when implementing the necessary steps for improving the education system using AR.
6.N. Dehtiarova (Sumy State Pedagogical University named after A.S. Makarenka, Sumy, Ukraine), O. Zhmud (Pavlo Tychyna Uman State Pedagogical University, Uman, Ukraine), V. Makarova, O. Hontar (Sumy State Pedagogical University named after A.S. Makarenka, Sumy, Ukraine), M. Zakharevych (Pavlo Tychyna Uman State Pedagogical University, Uman, Ukraine)
Non-Formal Education: Dynamics of Changes in the Popularity of Mass Open Online Courses 
Urgency and peculiarities of the integration of formal and non-formal education forms were considered in the article. Expediency of carrying out work on the integration of non-formal education into the educational process: requirements for the selection of platforms and courses, criteria for taking into account the acquired knowledge and competences, ability of teachers and tutors to take into account indicators of the quality of non-formal education was substantiated. Conscious assimilation of knowledge when integrating non-formal courses into the educational process of the university on the basis of experimental research was proven. Comparative analysis of mass open online courses according to the following criteria: content, teaching style, access, feedback was conducted. The issue regarding the advantages and disadvantages of work with mobile devices for the vast majority of applicants (students) during courses was outlined. Results of a survey of more than 200 respondents from different cities of Ukraine regarding non-formal education in 2021 and 2022 were analyzed. Dynamics of changes in relation to non-formal education in peacetime and during military operations were presented. Recommendations for taking into account the student's learning results during non-formal education were summarized.
7.A. Goltsiou, C. Sofianopoulou (Harokopio University, Athens, Greece)
Utilizing Robotics in Maths in Primary Education: A Case Study 
The use of robotics and programming help to approach mathematical concepts in an alternative way through differentiated learning. The approach contributes to the cultivation of mathematical thinking through experimentation and code correction, through visualization, as well as the inclusion of students. The aim of the paper is to present how robotics and specifically the Lego Education Spike Essential were integrated into the teaching of Geometry in the 1st Grade of a Greek primary school. The activities were included in three teaching scenarios in the framework of the utilization of the new Greek curriculum. The evaluation of the action was done by investigating the opinions and attitudes of the students and with structured observation by the teacher. The students' formative and final assessment were integrated into Moodle. Also, the programming of students' constructions formed the final evaluation of the implementation. From the evaluation of the action, it emerged that the students understood mathematical concepts, they cultivated collaborative, digital and programming skills in a pleasant collaborative learning environment. It is proposed to utilize robotics from an early age in the teaching of mathematics in the new Greek curricula, as a means of cultivating students' mathematical thinking.
8.I. Vlahović, I. Ogrizek Biškupić (Algebra University College, Zagreb, Croatia)
Fostering Critical and Computational Thinking in the Field of Primary and Secondary Education in non-STEM Subjects by Using Data Sets and Applications 
Critical and computational thinking in the primary and secondary education in recent years show growing importance in methodical approaches used in the classroom. Although many examples exist for using critical and computational thinking in STEM educational area, the social sciences i.e., non-STEM areas were somehow left out due to the relatively more difficult design of such content, especially in the part of the development of computational thinking. In that context, in this paper we present one way of using critical and computational thinking in non-STEM education, more specifically on the example of historical data sources, through the use of programming in Python. As an example, we use historical data for Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade routes, that were the largest long-distance coerced movement of people in history up to the mid-nineteenth century, for connecting concepts of databases, data science and programming for development of critical and computational thinking in context of history science. This way of using modern approaches in classroom should give teachers and pupils a broader picture of importance of interdisciplinary education for critical and computational thinking development through STEM and non-STEM classes that give pupils novel skills needed for future labor market.
9.A. Staneva, Sofia, Bulgaria), T. Ivanova, Sofia, Bulgaria), K. Rasheva-Yordanova (The University of Library Studies and Information Technologies (ULSIT), Sofia, Bulgaria), D. Borissova (Institute of Information and Communication Technologies at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Depar, Sofia, Bulgaria)
Gamification in Education: Building an Escape Room Using VR Technologies 
Gamification in education: Building an escape room using VR technologies A.Staneva*, T. Ivanova*, K. Rasheva-Yordanova*, D. Borissova** * University of Library Studies and Information Technologies, Sofia, Bulgaria ** Institute of Information and Communication Technologies at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Department of Information Processes and Decision Support Systems, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria ,, , Antonia Staneva - University of Library Studies and Information Technologies, Sofia, Bulgaria Tereza Ivanova - University of Library Studies and Information Technologies, Sofia, Bulgaria Katia Rasheva-Yordanova - University of Library Studies and Information Technologies, Sofia, Bulgaria Daniela Borissova - Institute of Information and Communication Technologies at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Department of Information Processes and Decision Support Systems, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria ABSTRACT The rapid expansion of media diversity and the growing popularity of "virtual worlds", created the need and opportunity to apply various innovative teaching methods. There is a change in the needs of learners who are no longer in the role of passive listeners. Interactive games can significantly increase learning effectiveness, motivation, and student achievement and turn students from passive to active participants in the learning process. This report examines the place of gamification in formal education and its role in supporting traditional learning. The purpose of the report is to present a gamified lesson based on virtual reality technologies. We focus on two points: (1) introducing innovation in the education of students at the high school stage, and (2) motivating students to think critically, synthesize available information, and solve problems. The report presents a model and implementation of a VR Escape room as a support tool for acquiring new knowledge in a digital environment. The innovative lesson model is applicable in both traditional and electronic learning environments. The model is independent of the study subject and educational level but is adapted to the attitudes, expectations, and needs of students in high school education. KEYWORDS: virtual reality; escape room; online learning; e-learning; distance education; serious games
10.V. Lang, A. Šorgo (Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Maribor, Slovenia)
The Use of Smartphones and Tablets for Teaching Biology at a Distance: A Comparison between Rural and Urban Schools 
Vida Lang and Andrej Šorgo The use of smartphones and tablets for teaching biology at a distance: a comparison between rural and urban schools The outbreak and spread of the 2019 coronavirus pandemic (COVID -19) has had a profound impact on education systems around the world. Schools have been partially or completely closed in more than 190 countries, affecting 1.6 billion school-age children (UNESCO, 2020). Many education systems have started with distance education. In preparing the research design, we asked ourselves a research question: what is the added value of using smartphones and tablets (PMTT) to teach biology at a distance. We administered a questionnaire to students to indicate the ways in which they use PMTT for teaching biology in distance education. We collected data from 384 school-aged children attending 6th to 9th grade of elementary school. grade of elementary school. 30% of the participants are from village or rural schools, and 70% of the participants are from urban schools. The results show that the majority of children, 75.7%, used PMTT very frequently to search for information on the World Wide Web. 65.9% used PMTT frequently to participate in distance learning (videoconferencing). Very rarely, if ever, PMTT were used to assist in conducting experiments, for virtual field trips, or for hands-on work in virtual laboratories. PCA analysis revealed 2 components. The first component explained the use of PMTT for hands-on work (48.12%, Cronbach's alpha = 0.86) and the second component explained the use of PMTT for communication and collaboration (16.15%, Cronbach's alpha = 0.82). We were also interested in whether the environment of the school (village or city) influenced the use of PMTT.
Monday, 5/22/2023 3:00 PM - 7:00 PM,
Congress hall, Grand hotel Adriatic, Opatija
3:00 PM - 7:00 PMPapers
Chairs: Jaak Henno and Hannu Jaakkola 
1.M. Nurminen (Tampere University, Pori, Finland), H. Järvinen, J. Viteli (Tampere University, Tampere, Finland), M. Saari, P. Rantanen (Tampere University, Pori, Finland)
Survey of Recent Research Topics on Effective Use of Communication Tools in Higher Education 
Effective communication is crucial for the success and well being of students and faculty members in higher education. Communication can improve student’s learning outcomes by clarifying the expectations and learning objectives on both curriculum and course levels. Further inclusive communication can enable creating a sense of community and belonging among students and the faculty. In this article, we present the results of a literary survey conducted on recent research discussing communication practices and software communication tools in higher education. Both linear and interactive communication occur in variable contexts and between different participating roles. During campus lock downs caused by COVID-19 pandemic, teaching and related communication were moved into fully distance mode. For teaching and learning higher education institutions needed to rely on existing and newly created software platforms. Synchronous teaching and communication could be conducted using video and voice conferencing tools, like Zoom or Teams. Similarly asynchronous communication could use tools including forums or emails. The tools adopted during the pandemic largely remain in use after the comeback of blended learning. For future research one goal could be the creation of communication models that can integrate the roles, practices, and tools currently interacting in higher education.
2.J. Mottl (Univerzita Hradec Králové, Hradec Králové, Czech Republic)
Teaching Computer Security in a Secondary School 
The article focuses on computer security, especially on the teaching of this topic in secondary schools. From the broad topic of security, the article focuses mainly on authorization and authentication and the related tools used for these processes in web development. The main objective of the paper is to determine the extent of education on these topics in secondary schools. The paper provides an insight into the issue by means of a questionnaire survey conducted in a secondary vocational school with a focus on computer science. The results of this survey were compared with the results of the same questionnaire given to students of the Bachelor's degree programme in Applied Informatics at the Faculty of Informatics and Management at the University of Hradec Kralove. The paper summarizes the results of the analysis of these questionnaires and provides insight into the importance of teaching computer security in secondary schools.
3.P. Rybalko (Sumy State Pedagogical University named after A. S. Makarenko, Sumy, Ukraine), O. Shukatka (Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, Lviv, Ukraine), S. Lazorenko, V. Kyselov, N. Skachedub (Sumy State Pedagogical University named after A. S. Makarenko, Sumy, Ukraine), Y. Kozeruk Paryshkura (Kyiv National University of Technologies and Design, Kyiv, Ukraine)
Digital Technologies in the Activities of Physical Culture and Sports Specialists: Features of Professional Training 
The article is devoted to the problem of training specialists in physical culture and sports (PhC&S) for the use of digital technologies in professional activities. Digital technologies characteristics by the professional activity of PhC&S specialists are given. Attention is focused on modern digital health tools. The authors characterize digital technologies in the professional activity of PhC&S specialists and describe the features of training PhC&S specialists for the use of digital technologies in professional activities. The authors argue that the training of future PhC&S specialists for the use of digital technologies in professional activities should be carried out purposefully according to a methodology that integrates specific forms, methods, and means of training. The content of the methodology is the disciplines "Information and communication technologies in the field of PhC&S" (the goal is to form ideas about digital technologies in the field of PhC&S in general) and "Digital health technologies in the field of PhC&S" (the goal is to form: knowledge about health and a healthy lifestyle, digital technologies for maintaining and controlling their health and the health of others; ability to use digital health tools in professional activities; reflection skills about the use of digital health tools). The results of the statistical analysis of the pedagogical experiment are presented, confirming the developed methodology's effectiveness.
4.I. Shyshenko , Y. Chkana , O. Martynenko , O. Udovychenko , I. Stotskyi , O. Semenikhina (Sumy State Pedagogical University named after A.S. Makarenko, Sumy, Ukraine)
Implementation of a Facilitative Approach to Teaching Mathematical Disciplines to Future Mathematics Teachers by Means of the MAPLE Package 
The aim of the article is to reveal the experience of using a facilitative approach in teaching future teachers of mathematics in teaching mathematical disciplines using the mathematical package MAPLE. Among the methods of studying the effectiveness of the facilitative approach in teaching mathematical disciplines to future teachers of mathematics, which highlights the advantages and disadvantages of this process, we have chosen SWOT-analysis. We have determined experimentally that one of the appropriate technologies of the facilitative approach when studying mathematical analysis by future mathematics teachers is "World Cafe". The description of its practical possibilities confirms its effectiveness in creating favorable conditions for training future mathematics teachers in mathematics analysis classes using the MAPLE package, to increase the motivational component of educational activities, creative personality and subjective involvement in working on problems and situations.
5.B. Banić, M. Konecki, M. Konecki (Fakultet organizacije i informatike, Varaždin, Croatia)
Pair Programming Education Aided by ChatGPT 
Programming education is generally considered as very challenging for both teachers and their students. Students are in many cases more used to memorizing facts than to adopting a new skill that requires intensive and prolonged learning. Also, programming concepts can be quite abstract and hard to perceive by students. In time, many teaching approaches and aiding tools have been identified, but the challenges of programming education have remained one of important research topics. Rapid development of new technology has resulted in new possible approaches in programming education. In this paper, an overview of challenges in programming education is given, and research results about using pair programming in combination with ChatGPT as an educational aiding tool are presented and elaborated.
6.G. Bubaš, A. Čižmešija (Sveučilište u Zagrebu, Varaždin, Croatia)
A Critical Analysis of Students’ Cheating in Online Assessment in Higher Education: Post-COVID-19 Issues and Challenges Related to Conversational Artificial Intelligence 
The latest advances in conversational artificial intelligence (CAI) systems that are available to the general public have boosted the debate on cheating in online assessment in higher education. The issue of cheating in online assessment had already been given significant attention owing to school closures (lockdown periods) during the COVID-19 pandemic and the consequent transition from on-site to online teaching and assessment. In our paper we present an overview of motives for and methods of cheating with a focus on a particular period of the COVID-19 pandemic and potential misuses of CAI. The paper comprises a synthesis of related review papers as well as a proposed taxonomy of methods for cheating in online assessment. Illustrations of some common methods for cheating as well as results from surveys performed in Croatia and internationally are also provided. Finally, several suggestions are made regarding the prevention or suppression of cheating in performing online assessment in higher education courses.
7.J. Multisilta, T. Mattila, K. Lempinen (Satakunta University of Applied Sciences, Pori, Finland)
Teachers’ Expectations for DigiVisio 2030 – A Joint Higher Education Digital Transformation Project in Finland 
This paper describes digital transformation in Finland from the perspective of a mid-sized university of applied sciences. Higher education institutions (HEIs) compete amongst themselves, both locally and globally, in terms of student and staff recruitment, government funding, and research funding. In addition, networking with companies and other organizations is a key part of HEIs’ strategies and actions. We present the steps that HEIs have taken toward digital transformation, the drivers behind digital transformation, and the factors that affect HEIs’ management strategies. In addition, we present the results of a questionnaire survey done in the mid-size University of Applied Sciences in Finland concerning the teachers attitudes and expectations towards nation wide digital transformation project (N=82). The data reveals that teachers’ expectations and attitudes vary from being positive to uncertain of what to expect. Many see that in future digital HEI the student counseling will play more important role compared to face-to-face learning. In addition, it is not widely accepted that future students would be self-directed. The role of technology was not seen a challenge, and the teachers expect more training and pedagogical methods to emerge when they collaborate with other teachers from other HEI’s in Finland.
8.J. Henno (Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn, Estonia), H. Jaakkola (Tampere University, Pori, Estonia), J. Mäkelä (University of Lapland, Rovaniemi, Finland)
What Do We Know about Learning – Conversations with chatGPT  
There are umpteen definitions/theories about learning. Currently most consider machine (i.e. computer) learning and currently we are witnessing a major achievement of machine learning – appearance of several chatbots which are able to produce human-quality conversation. Appearance of such 'fluid conversationalists' has aroused big interest especially among teachers, since they have already passed several exams designed for humans and have been used by students to perform in winter fall 2022 exams. Their performance is not based on linguistic research, but is an achievement of data science. This performance cannot yet be rationally explained (it is based on interplay of billions of variables), thus in the following are used conversations with the currently most visible member of this family – the chatGPT.
9.A. Antonova (Sofia University, Sofia, Bulgaria)
Validating a Model of Smart Service System, Supporting Teachers to Create Educational Maze Video Games 
Intelligent technologies can encourage the design and implementation of personalized learning solutions. While in traditional school settings, teachers still hesitate about how to use educational video games in class, a smart service system can facilitate them to become designers of complex learning experiences. By providing more data-enabled, user-centred and context-oriented recommendations, smart services can support teachers to design personalized and adaptable learning games. The paper presents the smart service concepts and explores their role in improving teachers’ capacity to design educational video games. It steps on the platform APOGEE to construct educational enriched maze video games and proposes a smart service validation model, which is verified and tested in practice. The paper starts with a short introduction of the pilot smart service system, based on the APOGEE platform. After that, it analyzes the existing platforms that teachers can use for learning game creation. Next, a validation model of the smart service system is presented. The validation process is explained in detail, covering two testing rounds with 9 lecturers and 15 students. The discussion part verifies that the proposed smart service pilot implementation can efficiently support teachers to conceptualize educational maze video games. The final part introduces future research directions.
10.K. Dyulgerova, D. Atanasova (University of Ruse, Ruse, Bulgaria), M. Milanova (English Language School "Geo Milev", Ruse, Bulgaria)
STREAM Education - Potential for Engaging Students in Generating Innovative Green Ideas and Development of Transversal Skills 
The article presents pedagogical strategies in the design of a STREAM approach-based initiative. The details in the training scenario are examined, the main stages in the design of the individual lessons and the tools for studying the progress of the students are described. An interdisciplinary Project Based Learning (PBL), in which students are researchers of real problems, creators of authentic content and creative products, is implemented in an innovative high school with foreign language training and additional profiling in the fields of Mathematics, IT and Entrepreneurship. A team of two teachers, participants in a Professional Learning Community (PLC), develop the design of this type of training, change the working conditions and develop a learning environment different from traditional formal learning spaces. Teachers act as mentors and facilitators, engaging 14- and 15-year-old students in the adventure of identifying problems, proposing solutions, and advocating for a position. The focus is on the development and evaluation of transversal skills acquired through the methods of foreign language learning and computer science. Optional IT learning groups have the potential to free space for extracurricular learning. Organized that way, students acquire and master competencies in the field of computer science. The development shares the details regarding the idea of ​​integrating learning approaches from the two subject areas - computer science and foreign language learning. The assessment and self-assessment tools provided in the development are easy to use and can provide quick feedback to students and teachers and measure the effectiveness of learning and teaching. Some conclusions are drawn and the proposed methodological approaches are commented on, the challenges in the work are described and options for overcoming them are indicated.
11.M. Yachmenyk (Sumy State Pedagogical University named after A. S. Makarenko, Sumy, Ukraine), I. Kharchenko (Sumy National Agrarian University, Sumy, Ukraine), O. Semenog, N. Kyrylenko, M. Ostroha, S. Bohoslavskyi, O. Semenikhina (Sumy State Pedagogical University named after A. S. Makarenko, Sumy, Ukraine)
The Formation of Infomedia Literacy of Students in a Media Tournament 
The article is devoted to solving the problem of forming information and media literacy of high school students in a media tournament. The concept of info-media literacy is described. It is shown that information and media literacy is characterized by media literacy, critical thinking, social tolerance, fact-checking, information literacy, digital security, visual literacy, and creativity. It is substantiated that the modern form of extracurricular work is a media tournament, which participation in which can affect the level of info-media literacy of young people. The experience of organizing and conducting a media tournament within the framework of the grant project of the Council for International Research and Exchanges (IREX) is described. The effectiveness of the selected forms, methods, and means has been proven statistically through the dynamics of the ability to perceive, critically read, analyze, interpret, and create media products and media texts of different styles and genres through the creative application of professional and theoretical knowledge and practical skills.
12.E. Rakovac Bekeš (I.gimnazija Osijek, Osijek, Croatia), V. Galzina (Faculty of Education Osijek, Osijek, Croatia)
Exploring the Pedagogical Use of AI-Powered Chatbots Educational Perceptions and Practices 
By providing personalised and adaptable learning experiences, artificial intelligence (AI) has the potential to revolutionise education. One promising development in this field is the use of generative artificial intelligence technology, such as the ChatGPT conversational agent. Chatbot technology has the potential to revolutionise the way educational content is accessed, created, understood, and implemented. In this research paper, we examine the current state of AI-powered chatbots in education and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using chatbots in this context. A case study of an AI unit planner (Copilot) built on top of the GT-3 application in K–12 settings will also be presented, examining how chatbots are used to assist teachers in lesson design and the extent to which teachers are familiar with them. Finally, the implications of chatbot technology for the future of education are discussed, along with recommendations for future research directions.
13.Y. Rudenko , S. Ahadzhanova, K. Ahadzhanov-Honsales (Sumy National Agrarian University, Sumy, Ukraine), O. Bieliaieva, A. Korovai, O. Semenikhina (Sumy State Pedagogical University named after A. S. Makarenko, Sumy, Ukraine)
Effective Educational Ukrainian Practices of the Formation of Media Literacy 
The article touches on the problem of the formation of media literacy (Info media literacy) of the younger generation. It is shown that to solve it is necessary: to develop critical thinking in young people regarding the consumption, verification, and evaluation of media products; to form the ability to resist manipulation, destructive influences, and hostile propaganda; to develop a culture of interaction in the Internet space and the ability to protect their own information space. The author's workshop and methods of conducting the workshop are described: a logical sequence of classes (motivation, encouragement to learn; training in practical techniques; verification of results; reflection); forms and methods of teaching (quizzes, contests, trainings, master classes). It is shown that important for the successful implementation of the workshop are: interactivity, game methods, training in methods of emotional relief, learning from examples, and real media products. The effectiveness of the author's workshop is confirmed. The dynamics of achievements showed significant positive changes in the ability to distinguish facts from judgments and to identify inaccurate information. The number of those students who realized the responsibility for the dissemination of unverified information and the importance of creating an adequate information space of their own has also increased.
14.M. Drushlyak (Makarenko Sumy State Pedagogical University, Sumy, Ukraine), Y. Sabadosh (Vinnytsia National Technical University, Vinnytsia, Ukraine), P. Mulesa (Uzhhorod National University, Uzhhorod, Ukraine), E. Diemientiev , A. Yurchenko, O. Semenikhina (Makarenko Sumy State Pedagogical University, Sumy, Ukraine)
QR Codes as an Educational Tool for Implementing the BYOD Approach in Physics Lessons 
The integration of students' own computer means into the learning process can be solved within the implementation of the BYOD approach (Bring Your Own Device). One of the digital technologies used in education today that works in favor of the BYOD approach are the use of QR codes. The authors analyzed the practices of using the BYOD approach. Examples of the use of QR codes are given: the creation of information leaflets; organization of surveys, tests, web quests, and virtual exhibitions; expanding the content of textbooks; information support of objects of study, visualization and/or research of phenomena and processes. It is shown that the use of QR codes in physics lessons within the framework of the BYOD approach allows not only to solve educational goals but also to increase interest in learning, develop teamwork skills, and expand students’ cultural horizons, that is, develop universal students’ skills. Ukrainian resources for generating QR codes are provided. The results of an expert analysis of ways to use QR codes in teaching physics are presented. It was found that the most effective is the use of QR codes when organizing web quests and for the purpose of informational support of objects of physics study.
15.A. Yurchenko, Y. Khvorostina, V. Shamonia, M. Soroka, O. Semenikhina (Sumy State Pedagogical University named after A. S. Makarenko, Sumy, Ukraine)
Digital Technologies in Teaching Physics: An Analysis of Existing Practices 
The article raises the problem of using digital technologies (DT) in teaching physics. To identify scientific and methodological results on the use of DT in teaching physics, an analysis of publications contained in the Scopus \ Web of Science databases and scientific and methodological publications of Ukraine is presented. The following directions have been recorded: the use of various digital tools as tools for the study of physical processes; using applications to solve physical problems, using cloud technologies and services to organize virtual physical experiments, using virtual and digital physical laboratories, using virtual and augmented reality to teach physics, using specialized environments to model physical processes. Separately, virtual physical laboratories are noted – computer environments that allow you to simulate the behavior of real-world objects in conditions that are close to real ones. The PhET resource, which contains online laboratories to support the study of various topics of the physics course, is briefly described. Based on the results of the survey of teachers, Ukraine’s practices of using digital technologies in teaching physics are summarized. In particular, there revealed a certain teacher bias regarding using virtual physical laboratories to teach physics.
16.H. Jaakkola (Tampere University, Pori, Finland), J. Henno (Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn, Estonia), J. Mäkelä (University of Lapland, Rovaniemi, Finland)
Computers in Education 
Computers, or in wider scope, information and communication technology (ICT), have had revolutionary impact on education. ICT is both merged to the education process and is supporting it. Computers and information technology are typical enabling technologies – not in the focus itself, but when available, these are adopted in use. Performance of computers has grown exponentially: According to Moore’s law processing power and RAM capacity is doubled in 1.5 years. The similar growth rate relates to mass memories and data transmission speed. During the era of computing (from the middle 1940s) information technology has gradually transferred to new areas of use. In the beginning, the computers themselves were in focus. In the 1970s microelectronics has been the key to changes: first personal computers, then networking and cloud technologies, further embedded intelligence of devices, distributed computing, complex software, wide access to heterogeneous data sources etc. have brought the computer to the growing number of applications, also in the education sector. The purpose of this paper is to have a look at the concept “computers in education”. It has been the title of the conference track in Mipro over decades. It is widely handled in literature, journals, and other publications. These provide forum for experience transfer in the area, as well as encourage researchers to study the topic from the scientific direction. The paper is partially based on the experiences of the authors and aimed to clarify the term from a variety point of view.
Tuesday, 5/23/2023 9:00 AM - 1:30 PM,
Camelia 2, Grand hotel Adriatic, Opatija
9:00 AM - 1:30 PMCroatian Day 
Chairs: Ivana Ružić and Marina Mirković 
1.I. Nađ (Algebra University College, Zagreb, Croatia)
Modeliranje linearnom funkcijom u osnovnoj školi 
Funkcija je jedan od temeljnih pojmova u matematici. Učenici se već u osnovnoj školi susreću s funkcijama, ponajviše u sedmom razredu i to s linearnom ovisnosti, tj. linearnom funkcijom. Linearna funkcija je obrađena na način na koji se učenici na nastavi susreću s njom, a dani su i različiti primjeri zadataka iz svakodnevnog života koji se mogu modelirati linearnom funkcijom. Pritom se pri modeliranju i analizi koristi alat dinamične geometrije Geogebra.
2.D. Valenčić, M. Miholjek, A. Skendžić (Veleučilište Velika Gorica, Velika Gorica, Croatia)
Industrijski IT certifikati iz područja računalnih mreža 
Kako bih se držao korak s velikom potražnjom kvalitetnih IT stručnjaka na današnjem tržištu, potrebna su velika ulaganja u njihovo obrazovanje i specijaliziranje. Jedan od najboljih i najbržih oblika kako obrazovati ljude (a pogotovo ih držati u koraku sa trenutnim tehnologijama) je educiranje kroz industrijske certifikate. U ovom radu će se prikazati vrste IT certifikata, razlozi i potreba za certifikacijom i njezine prednosti kod zapošljavanja i za poslodavce i posloprimce. Osim toga će se objasniti važnost industrijskih certifikata u području računalnih mreža za današnje i buduće IT stručnjake i inženjere računalnih mreža. Razmotriti će se i dostupnost industrijskih certifikata od strane najvećih svjetskih proizvođača mrežne opreme.
3.K. Brleković, D. Ivanović-Ižaković (Elektrotehnička i prometna škola Osijek, Osijek, Croatia)
Projekt GAMMA: Igranje ili učenje? 
Za razliku od drugih predmeta STEM područja, matematika se smatra apstraktnim skupom znanja, izoliranim od stvarnog svijeta. Tradicionalne metode poučavanja ne mogu privući učeničku pažnju i ne nude autonomiju učenja (Boaler, 2002). Učenje temeljeno na igrama (GBL), a posebno temeljeno na digitalnim igrama (DGBL) zbog svoje interaktivne prirode, ima obećavajući pristup učenju i poučavanju. Uz povećanu motivaciju dio digitalnih igra zahtijeva ovladavanje vještinama (primjerice strateško i analitičko razmišljanje, rješavanje problema, odlučivanje stvaranje, prilagodba promjenama) koje su tražene na današnjem tržištu rada. (Spires, 2015.,). GAMMA je dvogodišnji Erasmus + projekt koji se bavi idejom poučavanja matematike koristeći inovativne, kreativne i moderne metode uključujući svrhovitu uporabu digitalne tehnologije. Cilj projekta GAMMA je iskoristiti vrijeme koje učenici provode na svojim elektroničkim uređajima i njihovo znanje o digitalnim igrama za poboljšanje matematičkih vještina. Glavni ciljevi projekta: ➢ izraditi GAMMA priručnik za nastavnike ➢ utemeljiti autorski sustav (FAS) za proizvodnju digitalnih igara ➢ izraditi predložak scenarija poučavanja ➢ izraditi 8 scenarija poučavanja temeljenih na digitalnim igrama ➢izraditi 5 digitalnih igara za učenje matematičkih ishoda Tijekom provedbe Erasmus projekta provodi se i eTwinning projekta koji uključuje učenike u kreiranje digitalnih igara, te se proces učenja podiže na višu razinu.
4.S. Barbarić (Osnovna škola Milana Langa Bregana, Samobor, Croatia)
Čarobni svijet snjegovića knjigoljubaca - izrada digitalne slikovnice 
Učiteljica informatike Sanja Barbarić za učenike nižih razreda škole osmislila je projekt izrade slikovnica. Cilj projekta je potaknuti učenike na pisanje, crtanje i kreativan rad na računalu u aplikacijama, naučiti ih kako od teksta i crteža izraditi digitalnu slikovnicu i video uradak. Za motivaciju, učiteljica je svakom učeniku isplela zimsku kapicu. Ideja projekta je da neki učenici pletu, drugi slikaju, treći rade medijske uratke koje mogu staviti na web stranicu. Učenici su naučili kako je pletenje kao programiranje, radi se petlju po petlju, korak po korak, naredbu po naredbu. Nakon slikanja s kapicama zajednički su izradili video koji su nazvali Kap dobrote= Kapa na dar: Nakon toga za slikovnice Čaroban grad snjegovića knjigoljubaca zajedno su izradili gradić od drvenih kućica i igračaka, a stanovnici su snjegovići knjigoljupci izrađeni od stiropora, platna i ručno pletenih kapica koje je napravila uč oglednu slikovnicu „Dobro došli u Snjegograd“ : Kako je to u razredu izgledalo: Svaki razred odabrao je temu o snjegovićima, naslov, a svaki učenik dobio je jednu stranicu: Slikovnice se sad mogu posuditi tiskane u školskoj knjižnici.
5.M. Mirković (Tehnička škola, Požega, Croatia), D. Možnik (Hrvatsko vojno učilište "dr. Franjo Tuđman" , Zagreb, Croatia)
Stavovi i percepcije učenika i studenata prema plagiranju 
Današnji učenici, budući studenti odrastaju s moćnim tehnologijama od najranije dobi. One im omogućuju pristup, dijeljenje, kopiranje, generiranje i suradnju na kreativnom radu na načine koji se neprestano razvijaju. Pristup webu, velikim bazama podataka dovodi do plagiranja koje postaje ozbiljan problem za izdavače, istraživače i obrazovne ustanove. Ovaj rada analizira istraživanje provedeno putem internetske ankete o procijeni stavova i percepcije prema plagijatu i referenciranju. U Tehničkoj školi u Požegi anketa je provedena među učenicima trećih i četvrtih razreda, a na Hrvatskom vojnom učilištu "dr. Franjo Tuđman" u Zagrebu među studentima treće godine preddiplomskog studija smjera vojno inženjerstvo. Sudionici anketiranja iskazali su svjesnost problema, pokazali nužnost da se ovom temom treba češće baviti i raspravljati. Upoznati su sa alatima za provjeru plagijata, ali nisu svugdje definirane sankcije za plagiranje, odnosno pravilnici koji naglašavaju ovaj problem. Najbolji način da se spriječi plagijat je educirati učenike o tome kako ispravno provoditi istraživanje, citirati i stvarati jedinstven i originalan rad. Studenti moraju znati kako komunicirati s kreativnim radom na načine koji su etički i zakoniti. Razumijevanje osnovnih pravila o kreativnom radu bitan je element uspješnog i angažiranog digitalnog građanina. Autorsko pravo postaje bitan element digitalne pismenosti, važno za budućnost kreativnosti i interneta.
6.L. Ille, R. Fic (Graditeljska škola Čakovec, Čakovec, Croatia)
Medijski tehničari - nositelji projekata za mlade 
Digitalne kompetencije ključne su za razvoj modernog društva i osnovna je zadaća nastavnika informatike osposobiti učenike za pravilno korištenje ICT tehnologije. Kada je riječ o srednjoškolskim učenicima koji se školuju u obrazovnim programima koji pretpostavljaju svakodnevno korištenje takve tehnologije, kompetencije moraju biti kudikamo šire. U našoj školi svake se godine provodi nekoliko projekta u kojima učenici, budući medijski tehničari osmišljavaju i realiziraju sve projektne aktivnosti, čime dokazuju sposobnost praktične primjene usvojenih teoretskih znanja. Ove su školske godine provedena dva projekta; Animirani odmor te Mi, srednjoškolci. Učenici su osmislili projekte i realizirali sve planirane aktivnosti u suradnji sa svojim školskim kolegama, vršnjacima iz drugih škola te svojim nastavnicima. To je podrazumijevalo razradu projektne ideje, izradu najave i promocije projekta te komunikaciju s medijima i suradnicima, izradu radijskih emisija, provođenje radionica o uporabi multimedijske tehnologije s vršnjacima iz drugih škola, raspisivanje i provođenje natječaja za učenike u više kategorija te na kraju izradu kataloga svih radova nastalih u projektu, kao i snimanje te montažu video priloga o projektu. Osim praktične primjene stečenih znanja i poznavanja tehnologije, provedenim projektima učenici su pokazali i veliku umješnost u stvaranju novih sadržaja što pak predstavlja najvišu razinu ostvarenosti odgojno-obrazovnih ishoda.
7.J. Bistrović (Osnovna škola "Braća Radić", Koprivnica, Koprivnica, Croatia), T. Pavičić Zajec, T. Ređep (I. osnovna škola Varaždin, Varaždin, Croatia)
Digitalni alati u inkluzivnom odgoju i obrazovanju 
Porast broja učenika s teškoćama donosi odgojno-obrazovnim djelatnicima i nove izazove. Glavni cilj ovog rada i istraživanja bio je sistematizirati i prikazati važnost i prednosti korištenja digitalnih alata u inkluzivnom osnovnoškolskom obrazovanju. Anketnim upitnikom provjerena je količina i svrha korištenja, nastavno područje te vrsta korištenih digitalnih alata u redovnoj nastavi s učenicima s teškoćama. Istraživanje je provedeno na prigodnom uzorku od 106 učitelja razredne i predmetne nastave u nekoliko osnovnih škola Bjelovarsko – bilogorske, Koprivničko – križevačke i Varaždinske županije. Rezultati su pokazali da većina učitelja koristi digitalne alate u radu s učenicima s teškoćama, a kod većine učitelja svrha korištenja digitalnih alata je povećanje motivacije učenika te bolje razumijevanje apstraktnih nastavnih sadržaja. Učitelji razredne nastave digitalne alate najviše, i više od učitelja predmetne nastave, koriste na satima Hrvatskog jezika, dok učitelji predmetne nastave najviše, i više od učitelja razredne nastave, digitalne alate koriste u STEM predmetima i nastavi stranih jezika. Kao najčešće korištene alate ispitanici navode Kahoot!, Wordwall, Canvu i PowerPoint.
8.I. Ružić (I. OŠ Čakovec, Čakovec, Croatia)
Suvremene metode poučavanja robotike i umjetne inteligencije 
Manje od 2% ukupnog broja ljudi na svijetu, razvija, gradi i upravlja tehnologijom. Više od 98% ljudi su „obični“ korisnici koji ne znaju ništa unutarnjoj arhitekturi bilo koje tehnologije, oni je samo kupuju i koriste. Jedna od trenutno najpopularnijih tehnologija jesu robotika i umjetna inteligencija (UI). To su dva različita područja koji mogu koegzistirati. S razvojem sve sofisticiranijih sustava UI, povećava se primjena UI u robotici. Korištenje robotike i UI u svakom području ljudskog djelovanja ubrzano raste iz dana u dan. U području obrazovanja postoje velika potreba i potencijal za primjenu, poučavanje i stvaranje u području robotike i UI. Robotika i UI ne samo da mogu potaknuti razvoj vještina programiranja i računalnog razmišljanja, već i poboljšati inovativnost i vještine kritičkog mišljenja. Robotika i UI STEM koncepte čine interaktivnim i privlačnim za djecu i mlade koji često imaju smanjen raspon pažnje. Budući da robotika i UI imaju futurističku dimenziju, one razvijaju znatiželju kod djece i mladih, potiču veću koncentraciju, logično razmišljanje i pozitivan stav prema rješavanju problema. Uz pomoć različitih vrsta robota i programibilnih softvera mogu se provoditi suradničke aktivnosti koje olakšavaju razvoj vještina vođenja i suradnje, socijalizaciju i timski rad kod djece i mladih.
9.A. Tihomirović, S. Šišić (Tehnička škola Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia)
Motivacija nastavnika za usvajanje znanja vezanih uz nove tehnologije 
Nastava je dvosmjeran proces za koji je ključna motivacija obje strane. Izvođenje nastave korištenjem novih tehnologija ovisi o nizu faktora, a kvalieta naučenog ovisi o percepciji učenika. U većini slučajeva današnji učenici su nisko motivirani, „bombardirani“ sadržajima koji im odvlače pozornost, te je poučavanje korištenjem novih tehnologija izuzetno zahtjevan i intelektualno intrigantan posao. Motivacija nastavnika je intrinzična, jer ni na koji način nije financijski vrednovana. Može se uočiti i konstantni trend povećavanja broja maturanata koji se izvan redovne škole pripremaju za maturu. Na tržištu rada, nije moguće pronaći zainteresirane predavače iz STEM grupe predmeta, a sama satnica iz pojedinih predmeta se smanjuje svakom novom reformom, čime se još više umanjuje motivacija nastavnika iz STEM područaja za usvajenjm novih znanja vezanih uz nove tehnologie, čime se spirala negativnih događanja za društvo sve više ubrzava i nepovratno usmjerava u negativnom smjeru. Edukacija nastavnika neinformatičara trebala bi ići u dvije kategorije, za nastavnike koji su zainteresirani i one koji nisu. Prije organizacije edukacije trebalo bi provoditi testiranje o kompetencijama i vještinama nastavnika, te bi poslije provedene edukacije trebalo raditi certifikaciju polaznika na način kako se to radi u realnom sektoru, a novodobiveni certifikati bi trebali financijski utjecali na primanja predavača.
10.G. Bubaš (Sveučilište u Zagrebu, Varaždin, Croatia)
Primjena e-učenja u visokoškolskoj nastavi: pristupi instrukcijskom dizajnu, pedagoški scenariji, modeli hibridnog poučavanja i razine kompleksnosti u primjeni 
Primjena e-učenja tijekom pandemije COVID-19 virusa poprimala je različite forme u pogledu omjera između online nastave i nastave u učionici, kao i primjene različitih vrsta sinkronog i asinkronog e-učenja od strane nastavnika u visokom, srednjem i osnovnom obrazovanju. Pandemijsko razdoblje nije samo potaknulo preispitivanje učinkovitosti e-učenja u odnosu na učenje u učionici, već je potaknulo i razmatranje pristupa instrukcijskom dizajnu te pedagoških scenarija, modela hibridnog poučavanja i razina kompleksnosti u korištenju e-učenja. U ovom radu izložen je pregled različitih pristupa primjeni e-učenja s naglaskom na hibridno (engl. hybrid) ili kombinirano (engl. blended) e-učenja. Prikazani su rezultati istraživanja u odabranim preglednim radovima i meta studijama, kao i u nekoliko empirijskih istraživanja. Rezultati pokazuju na veliku raznolikost pristupa primjeni e-učenja u visokom obrazovanju, kao i na preferenciju prema hibridnom poučavanju od strane studenata, s jedne strane, kao i na pretežnu preferenciju prema učenju u učionici od strane nastavnika, s druge strane. Zaključak je da zainteresirani nastavnici trebaju na personalizirani način razvijati odgovarajuće elemente svoje kompetencije za primjenu e-učenja te koristiti primjerenu metodu evaluacije načina na koji primjenjuju e-učenje. Naime, evaluacija je jedna od najčešćih komponenti metoda instrukcijskog dizajna koje se koriste na području e-učenja.
11.K. Blažeka (Tehnička škola Ruđera Boškovića, Zagreb, Croatia)
Umjetna inteligencija kao izvor potpore nastavnicima u pripremi i izvođenju nastave 
Svjedočimo vidljivo ubrzanom napretku u područjima istraživanja i implementacije umjetne inteligencije (AI) vezano uz procesiranje prirodnih jezika (NLP) i njihovog razumijevanja (NLU). U softverskom inžinjerstvu uvedeni su botovi (bots), aplikacije sposobne reagirati na vanjske podražaje od strane korisnika na koje odgovaraju pokretanjem automatiziranih postupaka. Pri tome često uključuju konverzacijske sposobnosti, te sa krajnjim korisnikom komuniciraju tekstualnim porukama (chatbots) ili govorom (voicebots). U radu se diskutira kako mogućnost uvođenja umjetne inteligencije, odnosno korištenje chatbota (ChatGPT) tijekom postupka izrade i razrade nastavnih sadržaja za primjer pripreme (i izvođenja) nastave u srednjoškolskom obrazovanju može pomoći kvalitetnijoj pripremi i tako poboljšati procese učenja i poučavanja. U radu se istražuje mogućnost primjene umjetne inteligencije kod oblikovanja sadržaja i tijeka nastavnog sata namijenjenog učenju programiranja. Pri tom se pokušava odgovoriti na neka značajna pitanja kao što su: kako se umjetna inteligencija može iskoristiti za olakšavanje rada ili pomoć u radu nastavnika; kako može pomoći u traženju kreativnih rješenja; kako može pomoći kod izbjegavanja čestih pogrešaka kod učenja početnicima i drugo. Prezentirane mogućnosti upućuju općenito na veliki potencijal. U zaključku se demonstriraju preporuke i daje osvrt na moguće aspekte koji upućuju na to koliko realnom postaje opasnost da u obrazovanju roboti zamjene ili reduciraju posao nastavnika.
12.K. Udina (OŠ Kostrena, Kostrena, Croatia)
Knjižnica u Glideu 
Primjenjujući digitalne alate otvaraju se nove mogućnosti dostupnosti i vidljivosti sadržaja preporučenog za čitanje u osnovnoškolskoj dobi. Rad istražuje prihvaćenost i korištenje aplikacije Glide „Knjižnica u Glideu“ nakon nekoliko godina upotrebe u osnovnoj školi. Svrha rada je ukazati na pitanja razvoja digitalnih i čitalačkih pismenosti u osnovnoj školi putem modela poticanja čitanja, te važnost stjecanja informacijske pismenosti, kompetencije obavezne u osnovnoškolskom uzrastu. Aplikacija Glide pokazala se izvrsnom u dijeljenju i pretraživanju mrežnih mjesta, unaprijed pripremljenih izvora informacija za učenike. Cilj istraživanja bio je utvrditi stvarno korištenje aplikacije “Knjižnica u Glideu” među učenicima i učiteljima te moguće razloge nekorištenja. Analiza rezultata istraživanja o korištenju aplikacije prezentira da je sredina u kojoj djeluje školska knjižnica djelomično prihvatila model traženja djela za čitanje putem digitalnog alata, ali je školska knjižnica ovim modelom poticanja čitanja ostvarila izvrsnu vidljivost i dostupnost u svom okruženju. Temeljem analize može se zaključiti da sadržaji kojima ispitanici najčešće pristupaju su „Popis djela za čitanje“i poveznica za pristup e-lektiri, što opravdava stvaranje ovog modela za poticanje čitanja „Knjižnica u Glideu“. Zaključno, postoji ograničena upotreba dostupnih tehnoloških resursa, a korištenje aplikacije “Knjižnica u Glideu” ovisi o dostupnosti Interneta, o zainteresiranosti učenika ali i učitelja za sadržaj koji se nudi.
13.M. Kerstner (OŠ Šestine, Zagreb, Croatia), M. Sertić (OŠ Industrijsko-obrtnička škola , Slavonski Brod, Croatia)
Digitalni alati i filozofija uma: Može li stroj razmišljati? 
21. stoljeće donijelo je čovječanstvu nebrojene dobre promjene. Uobičajeno je govoriti da je jedna od najvećih dostignuća našeg stoljeća razvoj umjetne inteligencije koji za sobom nosi cijeli niz benefita koji se očituju u zdravstvu, ekonomiji, računarstvu, ekologiji, obrazovanju i u gotovo svim drugim znanostima. U radu smo pokušali povezati neke ključne aspekte filozofije uma – naročito concept lakih problema svijesti i teških problema svijesti Davida Chalmersa – s umjetnom inteligencijom koja je, ključno vezana za obrazovne digitalne platforme bez kojih europski, a time i hrvatski, obrazovni sustav više ne može funkcionirati. Postavili smo pitanje na koje, ipak, ne možemo odgovoriti, a radi se o budućnosti digitalnih platformi – kako u odnosu na učenike i nastavnike, tako i u odnosu na cjelokupno društvo ili civilizaciju. Smatramo da je to daleka budućnost, no mnogi su filozofi, poput Heideggera i Marcusea, još u 20. st. opominjali na određene negativne aspekte uporabe tehnologije bez dubljeg promišljanja na koji će način takva tehnologija utjecati na čovjekov prirodni humanizam. U radu se također spominju mnogobrojni digitalni alati, kao što su Spark Video, iMovie, Simplemind, Memrise, Geoguesser, Plickers, Flip, Edpuzzle, Padlet, Linoit, e-Book, Edmodo, Socrative, Plickers, Quizizz, Moodle, Diigo, Kami, Quizlet, Madmagz i još neki.
14.I. Nađ (Algebra University College, Zagreb, Croatia)
Rješavanje jednadžbi u osnovnoj školi uz Geogebru 
Rješavanje jednadžbi je jedan od izazova koji se često stavljaju pred učenike u nastavi matematike u osnovnoj školi. Računalni alati, kao što je Geogebra, mogu pomoći pri razumijevanju i uvježbavanju rješavanja jednadžbi. U radu je objašnjeno kako koristiti Geogebru za rješavanje jednadžbi, dane su upute za izradu radova i preporuke kako i što kroz te radove prezentirati učenicima.
15.R. Soldo (Strojarska tehnička škola Fausta Vrančića, Zagreb, Croatia), D. Kurtić (Agencija za odgoj i obrazovanje, Zagreb, Croatia)
Formativno vrednovanje u online okruženju nastave matematike 
U skladu s situacijom uzrokovanom pandemijom Covid-19, dolazi do potrebe organiziranja nastave u virtualnim učionicama, koje postaju mjesto uvođenja novih obrazovnih strategija. Nastavnici moraju rekonceptualizirati temeljna pitanja poučavanja, učenja i ocjenjivanja u netradicionalnim, virtualnim, učionicama, suočeni su s mnogim problemima izvođenja i organiziranja nastavnog procesa. Posebno do izražaja dolazi problem vrednovanja, dijelom zbog sumnje u integritet učenika ali i zbog samog izvođenja procesa vrednovanja u online okruženju. Ovaj rad ima za cilj ukazati na prednosti i nedostatke formativnog vrednovanja, mogućnosti njegovog integriranja u virtualno okruženje te prikazuje neke metode formativnog vrednovanja provedene u virtualnoj učionici nastave matematike.
16.I. Naranđa (2nd Primary School Čakovec, Čakovec, Croatia)
eTwinning - što kažu učenici? 
eTwinning, zajednica za škole u Europi, između ostaloga omogućuje učenicima rad na virtualnim suradničkim projektima u međunarodnom okruženju. eTwinning projekti već godinama su dio nastave Informatike u II. osnovnoj školi Čakovec, a posljednjih godina provode se i u sklopu izvannastavne aktivnosti. Provedeni projekti najvećim dijelom obuhvaćali su razne teme iz područja informatike i održivog razvoja. Suradnja s školama iz drugih država imala je za cilj unaprjeđenje nastave uz provođenje novih ideja kako bi učenicima nastava bila zanimljivo i zabavno iskustvo. Svaki eTwinning projekt uključivao je ex-post evaluaciju, u najvećem dijelu projekata provedenu putem online upitnika. No, kakve stavove imaju učenici o eTwinningu općenito, što uopće misle o potrebi provođenja ovakvih projekata u osnovnoj školi, pitanje je na koje se potražio odgovor pomoću anonimnog upitnika za učenike koji su prethodne dvije godine sudjelovali u eTwinning projektima. U ovom radu biti će prikazani rezultati i zaključci online istraživanja o stavovima učenika o eTwinning projektima koje je provedeno u prosincu 2022. godine među učenicima šestog razreda II. osnovne škole Čakovec.
1:00 PM - 1:30 PMAwards Ceremony for the Best Children's Drawings on the Topic "Computers of the Future" 
Tuesday, 5/23/2023 3:00 PM - 6:00 PM,
Camelia 2, Grand hotel Adriatic, Opatija
3:00 PM - 6:00 PMPapers
Chairs: Boguslawa Denys and Snježana Babić 
1.B. Denys, B. Klimczuk (Zamojskie Towarzystwo Oswiatowe, Zamosc, Poland)
International Cooperation for Digital Innovations in Primary Schools 
The contemporary world is technology-oriented and technology users are younger and younger. Digital literacy has become one of the basic skills that educational institutions focus on delivering for. Together with the technological advancement, the skill of programming has emerged as no longer the need of the hour, but as a lifelong skill. The search for innovative ways of introducing digital content to the youngest users constitutes the main objective for educational institutions, together with an urge to come up with effective educational solutions to provide primary schools with tools and methods to teach programming. Cooperation of varied institutions, ranging from primary schools, universities, cybernetics and robotics societies, to renowned publishing companies, proves to be an effective initiative making exchange of best practices possible and joint efforts realistic. The paper presents the outcomes of the cooperation of European institutions from Poland, Croatia, Portugal, Italy, Finland, Denmark, The Netherlands and Turkey under three international Erasmus+ projects. Jointly created databases, tools and methods to teach about programming and AI include innovative ideas for teaching computational skills with and without technology. International cooperation guarantees wide access to the materials for elementary school educators worldwide and fosters digital innovation in schools.
2.S. Babić (Polytechnic of Rijeka, Rijeka, Croatia), M. Čičin-Šain (Cybernetics society Rijeka, Rijeka, Croatia)
Teacher's Motivation for Applying the Unplugged MEMA Method for Early Programming Teaching 
The teachers’ motivation is crucial for the application of innovation in their teaching. Therefore, it is important to find out which factors stimulate the intrinsic and/or extrinsic motivation of teachers, so that the innovation is accepted and used in teaching. This paper points out the need to understand the factors that motivate teachers to use the Unplugged MEMA method for early programming teaching. In this regard, ways of motivating current and future teachers to apply the MEMA method over a longer period are presented, and potential factors of motivation are explained using the existing conceptual model for accepting innovations in the educational environment. The results of this work can be helpful in creating a teachers’ education model for the future application of the MEMA method and for the introduction of similar innovations in teaching.
3.I. Balaban, J. Bađari (Fakultet organizacije i informatike, Varaždin, Croatia), I. Ružić (1. Osnovna škola Čakovec, Čakovec, Croatia)
Evaluating Learners’ Reactions to an Online Training Programme: A Case Study of Maldives National University 
In this paper the first level of KirkPatrick's model is used to evaluate the reaction of learners on the online training program conducted at the Maldives National University (MNU). A measurement instrument assessing learners' engagement, satisfaction and relevance of the content was developed and evaluated. A sample of 46 university teachers involved in the training program was used to evaluate the measurement instrument. The results revealed strong positive correlation between all three research constructs. Detailed analysis of participant’s responses showed that COVID-19 related lockdown has played a significant role in participants’ perception of their engagement and satisfaction with the training program.
4.J. Žufić (Faculty of Educational Sciences, Pula, Croatia), S. Bodiš (Marčana Elementary School, Pula, Croatia)
The Impact of Short and Very Short Videos on the Effectiveness of Teaching and the Principles of Their Development 
Educational videos have become an important part of every level of education, providing an important tool for delivering content in traditional, hybrid and online teaching modalities. Video material not only needs to be developed in accordance with the pedagogical principles, it also needs to keep students' engagement and promote active learning. The length of video material is an important element that needs to be considered in development of teaching contents - how long the video should be. The article outlines active learning guidelines for teaching with video materials and the impact of the length of video materials (short and even shorter) on learning effectiveness. This article reviews previously published research and the results of the research projects conducted in three sixth grade classes in primary schools in Juršići, Marčana and Rovinj. The research included 55 elementary school students and video materials for the subject of Informatics. Students in each class were divided into two groups: One group of students was presented with a short video of 13:27 minutes, and the other group was presented with ten very short videos, ranging from 0:27 to 2:59 minutes.
5.M. Hajdarovic (I. Osnovna škola Čakovec, Čakovec, Croatia)
The Reality of Digital Teaching of History in Croatia 
The educational system has traditionally been slow to accept innovations and advances in technology used in everyday life. The high penetration of networking, digitalization, and the use of devices is ordinary daily life in the 21st century. They also have a severe impact on the everyday life of schools. Teaching History has not remained immune to the fruits of the IT revolution. In the Croatian framework, several attempts to reform the teaching of History itself must be added, which are rounded off by the School for Life project and pandemic attempts at online and combined teaching in recent years. The use of digital technologies and adapted methods of teaching History in that period went from indignation followed by individual utopian attempts to broader acceptance of the use of ICT. However, the question remains what this wider acceptance actually means for teaching history? In qualitative research using the structured interview method, 11 history teachers (advanced in the profession) were interviewed who, in the initial contact, expressed themselves positively towards the use of digital tools. The results point to possible future directions for the education of history teachers and specific strategies for using digital tools.
6.M. Galić (Fakultet političkih znanosti u Zagrebu, Zagreb, Croatia)
ICT and Changes in Education and Professional Activity of Journalists 
The suspension of face-to-face teaching at universities due to the COVID-19 pandemic and transitioning to online classes raised our consciousness of how important it is to harmonise university education with technological progress. Consequently, the results are summarised and evaluated with a view to setting the strategic directions based on them. In this paper, the study programmes in Journalism are analysed in terms of content which meets ICT and labour market requirements. Based on a comparison of the demands of the labour market, this paper undertakes assessment and provides answers as to what progress has been made in higher education of this socially important profession, and what changes are needed to follow or keep up with the process of digital transformation of society and education. The profession's task is, therefore, to actively participate in it with its education and competent reporting. Methodology. Study programme analysis. Job openings in this field were analysed, the requirements expected to be fulfilled by applicants were singled out and a comparison was made in the context of the competencies expected to be developed within individual modules and entire study programmes. The analysed data are presented in tables. Another part of the methodology involves qualitative data analysis. Results. The goal of this research and analysis is to report on the current situation, to define the starting points for changes, and to confirm the assumption that investing in intellectual capital through developing teachers’ competencies causes an increase in the total capital of a university and quality improvement of teaching and learning. Application of results. This paper will be useful to managers in education. Moreover, it can also benefit the dialogue between advocates of traditional and advocates of progressive trends in science and education and the labour market.
7.L. Shala-Riza, J. Ajdari, M. Hamiti (South East European University, Tetovo, Macedonia)
Challenges of Adoption of Cloud Computing Solutions in Higher Education: Case Study Republic of Kosovo 
Cloud Computing (CC) has begun to be widely used in higher education institutions in the last few years. The transition from on-premises systems to cloud solutions in education is a smart initiative with its own set of rewards and obstacles and affects various stakeholders willing to accept this change. The research tries to highlight the challenges that could affect the CC solution in higher education institutions in the Republic of Kosovo (RK) as a developing country, regarding security, infrastructure, and performance. Potential challenges affecting the implementation of CC in education will be assessed by different stakeholders, such as students, academic and IT staff of public and private universities, who are the target participants of this research. Also, this research tries to highlight the level of user's awareness of CC technology, the advantages of this platform, as well as the willingness of shareholders to apply it in educational institutions. Expected results foresee the identification of challenges and benefits that can be encountered in the case of CC implementation in HEIS, with the case study of the RK. The findings of the research can help institutions to assess the challenges during the integration of a CC solution in their higher education institutions.
8.M. Homen (Faculty of Teacher Education, Zagreb, Croatia), V. Juričić (Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Zagreb, Croatia)
Teenagers’ Gaming Practices and Their Performance in STEM Courses 
Millions of teenagers worldwide choose digital games as their primary entertainment. Except amusement, gaming environments enhance the capacity of learning, as it has been proved by many studies. Gaming is the only activity that shows a constant positive coefficient between PISA test scores and intensity of use, as proven by Biagi & Loi. This paper evaluates gaming habits in teenagers and analyzes the connection between students’ performance in Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) courses and playing digital games. For the purpose of this paper, we surveyed 6th, 7th and 8th grade Croatian primary school students and evaluated their gaming culture. We analyzed their play time, genre of games they play, complexity of games and used platforms. The aim was also to gather data regarding their self-perceived gamer identity, i.e. do they feel like gamers, do they play alone or with others and their general attitude towards games. We compared the data gathered with students’ grades in STEM related courses and analyzed the relationship of each variable separately to identify those who have the impact on their performance. Our results confirm that there is a positive relationship between increased gamer identity and success in STEM related courses.
9.M. Bednjanec, D. Bednjanec, B. Kuhar (Elektrotehnička škola, Zagreb, Croatia)
The Ubiquity of Mathematics in the Practical Basics of Computing and Programming 
Most students of secondary technical schools find it difficult to learn material from subjects that require logical and abstract thinking. Such students often resist and struggle to master material that requires this type of thinking, such as, for example, geometry. When acquiring content from programming subjects, for such students, abstract and logical thinking does not represent such an obstacle in solving tasks as is the case with mathematics. In practical subjects, such as the practical basics of computing, the correlation with mathematics did not give them problems. The research was conducted using a questionnaire containing 15 open and closed questions. The respondents are students of a high school that educates students in electrical engineering and computer science. The goal of the research was to investigate the cause of such students' approach to mathematical tasks and to find out which teaching methods and teaching aids would help students in presenting abstract tasks. The conclusion is that students are more motivated when solving tasks by writing computer programs because running the written code makes it easier for them to make logical connections and abstract thinking. Proposals for teaching methods and teaching aids for teaching mathematics were also made in order to facilitate students' acquisition of teaching content.
Thursday, 5/25/2023 9:00 AM - 1:00 PM,
Collegium, Grand hotel Adriatic, Opatija
9:00 AM - 1:00 PMPapers
Chairs: Marjan Krašna and Robert Repnik 
1.I. Dunđer, S. Seljan (Filozofski fakultet u Zagrebu, Zagreb, Croatia), M. Odak (Filozofski fakultet u Mostaru, Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina)
Data Acquisition and Corpus Creation for Phishing Detection 
Detecting phishing attacks is not straightforward, since there are many obstacles that derive from language complexity and technical aspects. Studying phishing attacks and other related issues heavily relies on computer datasets, i.e. digital corpora that reflect these linguistic and technical intricacies. Diverse studies using phishing datasets have been performed, but mainly for the English language. Research for other languages is scarce, and especially for not widely spoken languages. For the Croatian language there is an evident lack of corpora that are essential for diverse analyses and for constructing models that are capable of recognizing phishing attacks and protecting users. These datasets are necessary for natural language processing and building machine learning workflows, where results largely depend on corpora that must be specifically crafted for this purpose. Therefore, creating high-quality domain-specific corpora is of great importance in the domain of information security. Such corpora can be employed for teaching purposes in various courses in higher education, and could be analyzed in numerous ways in order to understand the underlying principles of phishing attack strategies. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the entire process of data acquisition and corpus creation for the phishing detection domain. In addition, an analysis of the corpus is presented with regard to different aspects, such as descriptive statistics, terminology characteristics, metadata and language.
2.D. Bele, D. Kučak, Đ. Pašić (Visoko učilište Algebra, Zagreb, Croatia)
Increasing Students’ Motivation and Improving Outcome by Changing the Course Examination from Test to Project on a University Course 
This paper measures the impact of changing the university course examination from test to project. It was witnessed that the student's motivation was low, as most students took the exam at the last deadline, and their grades were deficient. In order to increase students' motivation, grades, and earlier delivery, the paper authors changed the approach. Instead of forcing students to learn for the exam on particular dates, students were given a set of projects to deliver regularly. This paper is trying to answer the following questions: Does the usage of project-based course results in scoring better grades (Q1)? Does using a project-based course increase the student's motivation to deliver earlier (Q2)? The paper analyzes scores and examination dates for four generations of students – the first two generations were examined through the tests, and the other two were examined through individual projects. The course's learning objectives remained the same, as well as the learning objectives for the courses that precede the course being examined. The paper shows the following results: The average grade for the students rose from 3.31 to 3.74 (Q1), while the average value of exam date changed from 3.01 to 2.20 (Q2).
3.M. Bankovska (University of Library Studies and Information Technologies, Sofia, Bulgaria), D. Borissova (Institute of Information and Communication Technologies at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria), K. Rasheva-Yordanova (University of Library Studies and Information Technologies, Sofia, Bulgaria)
Model for Assessing E-Learning Courses Considering Multiple Visual and Technical Indicators 
The rapid progress of information and communication technologies and their penetration into the world of education has led to a gradual transition from conventional learning to modern e-learning. More and more universities and businesses have switched to web-based learning environments. Integrating electronic media into learning improves productivity by influencing both the effectiveness and efficiency of the learning process and the motivation of learners. This article aims to systematize the main indicators for evaluating e-learning media, considering multiple indicators. The identified important indicators are used to formulate a mathematical model for the overall assessment of the e-learning courses' performance. The proposed model could be applied to every e-learning course and is independent of the field of its application and the used learning environment. The obtained results demonstrate the applicability of the formulated mathematical model.
4.D. Paľová, I. Korobaničová (Faculty of Economics, Košice, Slovakia)
Education of Teachers at Higher Education towards Changing Education Expectations 
"Technology will not replace great teachers, but technology in the hands of great teachers can be transformational." In the context of current technological development, its impact on the life of mankind and dramatic changes in society during the COVID-19 pandemic, this quote by George Couros is gaining importance. The changes in education styles had to take place at all levels of the education system, including Higher education. Returning to the face-to-face form of education as it was before the pandemic is not possible anymore. Both students and teachers have discovered the wide options of technology used to further improve the educational process. However, in addition to the development of skills with the use of technology, it is necessary to develop other pedagogical skills and personal qualities of teachers, so that they can prepare their students for the continuously changing labour market. One of the projects that focuses on the development of teachers in all aspects of the educational process is "Holistic Education and Training of University teachers in the field of Economics". In this paper, the project is briefly described. Furthermore, the expected and already obtained outcomes and benefits for the entire pedagogical community and the educational process are showcased.
5.L. Reveszova (Faculty of Economics, Košice, Slovakia)
Education via ICT Due to Corona Crisis – Our View on Pros and Cons 
The article summarizes our experience in teaching via ICT due to Corona crisis form March 2020 to January 2023 at the Faculty of Economics, Technical University, Košice. We discuss pros and cons of this form of education from the point of view of university teachers and we present also our students views obtained from questionnaires. Today in the fast-changing global environment, knowledge is one of the most important factors determining success and technologies influence all areas of human lives. That is why the following questions need to be answered: “What methods should we implement to optimize the effects of such education? What will be the impacts on students' knowledge base? What will be the overall effects of the corona crisis on education?”
6.P. Voštinár (Matej Bel University, Banská Bystrica, Slovakia, Banská Bystrica, Slovakia)
Using Drones in Teaching Computer Science 
More and more teachers from primary and secondary schools are using some type robots, microcontroller or some new tool for teaching programming. Thanks to the lower prices of these robotic building blocks and aids, students are better prepared for their future profession. We used four type for drones in teaching process in primary school and in the extracurricular activity at the Matej Bel University for teaching programming. The contribution deals with describing our experience with different drones.
7.M. Novak (Faculty of Organization and Informatics, Varaždin, Croatia)
Student Perspectives on Source-Code Plagiarism: Case Study of Three Programming Courses 
Plagiarism is a serious offense and students plagiarize for various reasons. But sometimes students plagiarize and don't even know that they are doing it. In this research a case study was conducted where questions, which describe different situations, were given to students. Questions are taken from an existing study which was conducted in the UK to get the perspective of academics. Similar questions were later given to students in the UK and China to get the student perspective. In this case, Croatian students from three programming courses (at three different levels) were questioned. In this paper the most interesting findings of student perspectives on plagiarism are presented together with some comparisons to the previous studies.
8.M. Krašna, T. Bratina (University of Maribor, Maribor, Slovenia)
The Influence of the COVID 19 to the Future of Learning 
In the years of COVID 19 we have changed the education. Though we wanted to change only the way we teach, study and learn we have changed ourselves. May studies have been done about the drawbacks of the distance education, videoconferencing and social interaction. Much less were focused to the benefits of the changed learning environment. In the short time we have learnt how to use tools for remote work. We have become masters of videoconferencing and in the education, teachers produce a lot of learning materials. But what good comes to the students. Do they miss something from COVID 19? We are doing the research of the educational study programs’ students what they miss and what they consider good for the future of education.
9.I. Mekterović, L. Brkić (Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, Zagreb, Croatia), V. Krstić (The Fifth Gymnasium, Zagreb, Croatia)
Programmable Questions in Edgar 
Automated programming assessment systems (APAS) are a valuable tool that is growing in popularity, particularly in the field of computer science education. They can provide quick and objective assessment and feedback to the programming assignments – those that receive source code as a response. Most APASs treat code like a black box and employ dynamic analysis to assess code. Dynamic analysis is straightforward, easily implemented, explainable, and works well in most situations. Edgar is comprehensive, state of the art APAS, that has been daily and evolved for the past six years. This paper examines the pipeline used by Edgar to assess programming questions and presents our enhancements to the traditional dynamic analysis - programmable templates and scripts. Templates enable customized question texts based on the programmable model, so that each student can receive personalized variation of the question. Personalized questions are a great way to fight potential academic dishonesty. Scripts are plugged into the assessment pipeline after the dynamic analysis and can override the default grade by examining some other aspect of the program. We also offer our thoughts on upcoming plans to include generic static analysis as we move closer to a unified assessment pipeline.
10.T. Alajbeg, M. Sokele, S. Morić, F. Brkić (Tehničko veleučilište u Zagrebu, Zagreb, Croatia)
ICT Support for Successful Face-to-Face and Online Teaching Process 
ICT as a technical support is an important factor for improving the success of the teaching process. Requirements for ICT support are elaborated in detail for Face-to-Face, asynchronous and synchronous online teaching process as well as for blended teaching environment used in the post-pandemic period as a selection of the best practices aforementioned teaching methods. The success of the analyzed methods of teaching processes was quantified via key performance indicators for the effectiveness and efficiency of the teaching / learning process in the case of the undergraduate study of Electrical engineering at the Zagreb University of Applied Sciences.
11.A. Glavaš (Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Osijek, Croatia), D. Marković (J.J.Strossmayer University of Osijek, Department of Mathematics, Osijek, Croatia)
The Role of Informatics Textbooks in Primary School in Croatia 
Informatics teaching has its own peculiarities, which are reflected in the characteristics of informatics textbooks and their use in the classroom. Although many studies of textbooks from different aspects have been conducted in recent decades, very few of them deal with informatics textbooks. This paper presents a study of the use of informatics textbooks as curriculum resources in Croatian primary schools. The focus of the study is on how and why textbooks are used during the planning phase of the teaching, during the teaching of new content, and during the practice phase in classrooms. The data were collected through a large-scale survey of primary school informatics teachers. The results were obtained by descriptive and inferential statistics (chi-squared test) using the R software. This research will be of interest to the scientific community, creators of educational policy, i.e. textbook standards, as well as authors and publishers of informatics textbooks.
12.D. Paľová, M. Vejačka (Faculty of Economics, Košice, Slovakia)
Simulation of Corporate Work-Life as a Part of Higher Education 
The phrase "Data is new oil" is becoming truer thanks to rapid technical development and our growing dependence on data. It is therefore very important that the students’ skills also include the ability to work with data (to search, understand, process, visualize, analyze etc.). Today, data is used in decision-making and management in all areas of our lives. Therefore, also of Economics need to have an overview and experience in this field before entering the labor market. The long-term cooperation with the Deutsche Telekom IT Solutions company resulted in the idea of realizing a course where students would work with real corporate data during their studies, similarly as the employees in their normal working life. The subject was created so that the leading employees of this company played an active part in its educational process. The paper presents the content and method of implementation of this subject, the results from its pilot run and feedback from both, students and employees. Furthermore, also the challenges that the pilot implementation of the subject posed to us in the coming years are presented.
13.M. Duić (Department of Information Sciences, University of Zadar, Zadar, Croatia)
A Treasure Trove at Your Fingertips: Analysis of Contents from Europeana with Regard to Their Copyright Status 
Libraries, museums, archives and other institutions from more than 35 countries in Europe as well as several countries outside Europe, shared with Europeana metadata about their heritage documents in digital form. This enabled the creation of huge integrated digital library which gives access to more than 55 million digital documents. Among these documents are books, newspapers, photographs, illustrations. Lots of documents from Europeana are freely available to use for various purposes, given that it is content in the public domain or content that has one of the Creative Commons licenses or is otherwise free to use without having to pay compensation to copyright holders. This kind of open access content was especially important during the Covid-19 pandemic when, for example, many teachers and school librarians could use it for the improvement of online teaching and learning. The goal of this paper is to research the copyright status of contents from Europeana. The Europeana's contents of different copyright status will be analysed with regard to aspects such as content providing country, type of media, language, file format and image size. Insights will be gained through quantitative content analysis of the data from Europeana.
14.S. Seljan, N. Tolj, I. Dunđer (Filozofski fakultet u Zagrebu, Zagreb, Croatia)
Information Extraction from Security-Related Datasets 
There are various approaches to executing security breaches which are nowadays massively occurring in electronic communication environments, and phishing attacks are one of the most applied ones. A vast majority of phishing attacks are initiated by the use of electronic messages, which attackers utilize to direct users to harmful or fake websites, to infect computers or to obtain personal or sensitive data for malicious purposes. Consequently, it is necessary to identify phishing messages in order to provide suitable user protection. Research and numerous studies have included machine learning algorithms and techniques from the field of artificial intelligence which predominantly depend on language-specific datasets and characteristics of phishing messages, and which have demonstrated to be effective for extracting critical information and for data-driven decision making. However, Croatian-English phishing datasets and analyses are lacking. The aim of this paper is to present an information extraction pipeline that encompasses phases such as corpus pre-processing, generating predictions of phishing messages using selected machine learning algorithms, along with a basic analysis, confusion matrix and evaluation scores for Croatian and English. This type of key information can be used for teaching in higher education, e.g. in security-related courses or subjects that deal with machine learning, big data analysis, computational linguistics etc. This is essential as it can provide deeper insights into phishing attack strategies and potential countermeasures.
15.D. Paľová, J. Štofa, M. Vejačka (Technical University of Košice, Košice, Slovakia)
Comparison of Pandemic and Post-pandemic Education at Higher Education Computer Science Course 
Many people see the period of COVID-19 pandemic as a challenge. This period was caused by many changes in the teaching process. The post-COVID-19 period is also full of challenges. E-learning is an integrated part of classical education. It opened a new space for students and teachers. We provide the subject Informatics I at our faculty. We assumed that this subject is easy to pass, but the opposite is true. The proof is the repetition of the subject by a high number of students. Our goal is to determine the dependence of failure on the form of teaching during and after the pandemic. Therefore, we approached students who participated in both forms of the educational process of this subject. We investigated the obstacles in education that they had to overcome during individual periods. We were interested in what they consider positive and negative in both forms of learning. These results will better help us design the structure and organization of the subject. This contribution is aimed at identifying problematic parts of the educational process. It tries to present new proposals to reverse the unfavorable trend. We want to provide students the skills and knowledge required by the job market today.
16.M. Banek Zorica, J. Klindžić (Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Zagreb, Croatia)
When User Experience Design Meets LMS Desktop Users: How to Mitigate Mobile-Oriented Interface? 
User experience design (UX design) of Learning Management Systems (LMS) is recently becoming more mobile device oriented, since large numbers of users are using mobile devices (smartphones primarily) to access learning content and activities. In this paper we will give an overview of device and platform use at the large HEI in Croatia (Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Zagreb), based on 3-year survey of first year undergraduate students (over 2100 respondents) as well as the possible steps to mitigate the issues with the mobile-oriented LMS interface (Moodle 4.x) when used on desktop devices. While move to the mobile-oriented interface design is helping most of the users, some of the teachers and content creators, who by default need to use desktop devices (PCs and laptops) have experienced certain issues with LMS usage: too large fonts, and icons (designed for touchscreen and small screen devices), several features and navigation elements no longer initially visible (needs for additional interface clicks and new menus) and so on. Most of those issues could be mitigated using customized interface themes and modifications, but some require organizational and methodical changes that we will discuss in detail.
Thursday, 5/25/2023 3:00 PM - 7:00 PM,
Collegium, Grand hotel Adriatic, Opatija
3:00 PM - 7:00 PMPapers
Chair: Krešimir Pavlina 
1.T. Velki (Faculty of Education, Osijek, Croatia), M. Miočić (University of Zadar, Zadar, Croatia)
Applying TAM (Technology Acceptance Model) to Predict Effective ICT Use of Preschool Teachers during the COVID-19 Pandemic  
During the COVID-19 pandemic, educational institutions were challenged to organize online activities, and it was especially challenging to organize them in preschool institutions. Based on the modified TAM (Technology Acceptance Model), the study aimed to examine the potential predictors of effective preschool teachers’ use of information-communication technology (ICT) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Additionally, the main effect of previous work experience was tested. The participants were 104 employed preschool teachers. They completed two online questionnaires (Use of ICT and Digital competencies) created for this study’s purpose and gave some demographic data. Hierarchical linear regression was performed in order to test TAM, predict the effective use of ICT during the COVID-19 pandemic. The results showed that only the positive attitudes and recent experience were significant predictors of effective ICT use during COVID-19 pandemic, explaining overall 38% variances, while users’ characteristics did not play a role. Furthermore, preschool teachers with less work experience self-assessed possessing higher levels of specific ICT competencies necessary for work during the COVID-19 pandemic. Previous experiences with ICT and a specific set of ICT competencies were crucial for preschool teachers to successfully transform activities into a virtual environment during the COVID-19 pandemic.
2.M. Sertić (Industrijsko-obrtnička škola , Slavonski Brod, Croatia), M. Kerstner (OŠ Šestine, Zageb, Croatia), T. Ćosić (Industrijsko-obrtnička škola, Slavonski Brod, Croatia)
How to Use E-Learning App in Education and Presentation of Erasmus Project 
In this paper it will be presented several applications for interactive digital content and tools in education. The base of this paper was project Effective e-Learning System Based on Digital Competences in the field of strategic partnerships at the level of Erasmus+ KA2 activities. The project connected six EU countries Croatia, Latvia, Portugal, Romania, Sweden and Greece. The idea of this project was to show how we can increase the level of digital competence for students and teachers by using digital tools in teaching classes in each country. The goals of this project were sharing experience with using e-learning and finding new possibilities to improve digital competences of students and teachers.
3.M. Fabijanić, G. Đambić, B. Skračić, M. Kolarić (Visoko učilište Algebra, Zagreb, Croatia)
Automatic Evaluation of Student Software Solutions in a Virtualized Environment 
Universities are using Automated Programming Assessment Systems (APAS) to minimize problems that emerge by manually managing student software solutions: subjectivity, inefficiency in case of many solutions, and lack of fast and rich feedback for the student. Lately, handling code executions in a secure way has become a requirement. Researchers addressed this topic and proposed generic security models: user-level restrictions, process-level restrictions, and virtualization. In the case of virtualization, commonly suggested solutions are virtual machines and containers. With all the benefits of virtual machines, but less resource-demanding, containers are becoming widely used in the last years. This paper proposes a newly developed assessment model and an information system and proposes a solution for the automatic evaluation of student solutions in a virtualized environment. It analyzes the key parts of the student solution source codes and commands against a combination of the test case input data, using the pattern-finding method. This method was used in the context of finding the required lexical structures. The proposed system is used during the exam evaluation of the Programming course at the College of Algebra, and the relational database courses, for evaluating SQL solutions in combination with the previously developed system at the College of Algebra.
4.D. Tuličić, D. Delija (VSITE, Zagreb, Croatia), G. Sirovatka (Zagreb University of Applied Sciences, Zagreb, Croatia), M. Mrkoci (VSITE, Zagreb, Croatia)
Windows Admin GUI Model for Learning PowerShell Commands 
This paper presents the development of a platform for the education of system engineers with the aim of insight into detailed data about computers under the MS Windows operating system. The Samm application is based on the ideas of IBM's SMIT (System Management Interface Tool) interface for AIX systems, where standard commands are used through a precoded semi-graphical working environment. The developed application uses PowerShell commands and is primarily focused on the security aspects of system administration..
5.M. Brizar, D. Kazovic (Veleučilište Velika Gorica, Velika Gorica, Croatia)
Potential Implementation of Augmented Reality Technology in Education 
In today's age of development of science and technology, which is developing extremely fast, the way in which technology is implemented is also changing. One of the important technologies that is used in many areas of business, as well as education, is certainly AR technology, i.e. augmented reality technology. Numerous studies have shown great benefits of applying AR technology in all segments of education, from preschool education, elementary education, secondary education, higher education, as well as within the field of lifelong education. By using AR technology through augmented reality displays and 3D formats, it is possible to facilitate learning processes and experience of the material learned in all areas and segments of education. Scientific research will be carried out for the purposes of drafting this paper. The objectives of the research are to research the attitude towards augmented reality technology in learning and knowledge acquisition and to research the attitude towards the potential for improving educational processes using AR technology. The paper will present the results of research that will show the influence of previous experience with AR technology on the adoption of more positive attitudes towards the implementation of AR technology in learning and acquiring knowledge and will present the potential for the implementation of AR technology within the Croatian educational curriculum in the coming 5 years.
6.S. Lovrenčić, V. Sekovanić (Faculty of Organization and Informatics, Varaždin, Croatia)
How Well Students Perceive Their Understanding of Logic Programming Course Content? 
Teaching and learning programming languages is challenging in many ways. Students are often more familiar with imperative paradigm, and therefore programming languages that belong to declarative paradigm are even more demanding. Logic programming languages are usually taught when students already have prior knowledge of programming concepts and logic. This should make their learning easier, and also their perception to which level they have mastered course content prior to exam should be quite good. The paper describes analysis and results from five-year research on a course where logic programming is taught in the Prolog programming language, and includes one year of online teaching. Students’ feedback on their perception of understanding the course content, especially practical part is analysed and compared to their success in passing the course at the end of the semester. Differences between perception and success are discussed together with results of previous research of learning problems perceived by students, with the aim of investigating the role of opinions and perception in learning analytics and improving the learning design of this type of course.
7.K. Bedi (Graditeljska škola Čakovec, Čakovec, Croatia)
AI Comics as Art: Scientific Analysis of the Multimedia Content of AI Comics in Education 
This paper examines the advantages and disadvantages of using AI comics as a tool for more effective artistic expression among students. The paper includes a detailed description of the production of AI comics. In addition to the visual, the study also focuses on drawing skills and the presentation of AI comics as an active agent in media creation - not only with content, but also with a careful application of form features. This type of process complements the working methodology that enhances expertise, skills, and knowledge and promotes critical and creative thinking in students. The collaborative processes often used in the educational process have been partially replaced by individualized work with AI comics. Of course, this does not relegate the learning outcomes to the background, but rather incorporates them into the design. In this way, students can develop a wide range of creative activities specific to the medium of AI comics: narrative construction (bridging the virtual world and reality), temporality, space, synergy of text and drawing, organizational skills, publishing, digitization, etc. In addition to the actual creation of the AI comic, learning about storytelling and project work brought students closer to understanding the art of the AI comic.
8.A. Pongrac Pavlina, K. Pavlina (Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Zagreb, Croatia)
Comparative Analysis of Student Assessment during the COVID-19 Crisis 
During the coronavirus pandemic (summer of 2019/20) classes at the University were held via videoconferencing tool. The lectures were also available to the students in the form of recordings. For a written online colloquium we designed a specific system. The colloquium was solved while teacher simultaneously held a video conference call for guiding students on time limit of each question. The entire colloquium is divided into smaller tests; first test-the closed-type questions were mixed so that the student received his combination of questions. The openended questions were divided into separate tests and the students, via video conference call, received instructions when each question was opened. In this way, all students wrote the same questions at the same time, and a certain amount of time was set for each question. The next generation of students (2020/21) was again the pandemic generation. These students, like the previous generation, also got access to recorded lectures, so they could consult the lectures countless times. This generation wrote colloquia on paper in the classroom. This paper compares the results of these two generations of students in written colloquiums and final success in taking courses that include all the elements that are evaluated during the semester.
9.K. Aleksić-Maslać, P. Vranešić, B. Sinković (Zagrebačka škola ekonomije i managementa, Zagreb, Croatia)
From Classroom to Online Environment – The Comparison Analysis of the E-Learning Standards Before and during the COVID-19 Pandemic 
The Zagreb School of Economics and Management (ZSEM) has systematically used e-learning in teachings since its establishment in 2002, which has greatly helped in maintaining the quality of education even during the crisis that was caused by COVID-19. In order to systematically follow the quality of e-learning, ten standards were developed that are divided into four groups: static, dynamic, administrational and other. In this paper, the evaluation results of 134 courses will be analyzed of the undergraduate level of three academic years: 18/19, 19/20 and 20/21 in 4 groups of students - the Economics and Management groups in Croatian and English, the Business Mathematics and Economics group and Elective courses group. Regardless of the difference in the quality of the developed courses, all groups behave similarly and have an increase of 13-17% in regards to quality standards during the COVID-19 pandemic. The static and administrative standards have insignificant changes, while the dynamic and other standards have a significant rise. The analysis of individual standards shows that the usage of certain elements has highly increased. This example of good practice shows how, with good preparation and continuous improvement, it is possible to move from classical to online classes without major problems.
10.T. Harakchiyska (University of Ruse, Ruse, Bulgaria)
Self-Assessment of Pre-service English Teachers’ Digital Competence 
Digital competence is considered an integral component of the skills and professional expertise of teachers nowadays. The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions of 82 pre-service English language bachelor and master level teachers from a state university in Bulgaria on their digital competence based on the interplay of five variables – competence for using and integrating ICT in the foreign language classroom, technological pedagogical knowledge, support received during training, capacity to promote the digital skills of their learners and attitude towards integrating digital technologies in their future professional practice. Based on the performed descriptive, correlational and inferential analysis of the data obtained, it was established that the most strongly related variables were the self-perceived competence of the pre-service teachers for using and integrating digital technologies in the teaching and learning of foreign languages and their capacity to promote the digital skills of their learners.
11.R. Vrana (Filozofski fakultet Sveučilišta u Zagrebu, Zagreb, Croatia)
Digital Literacy of Students at the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences Zagreb: An Empirical Study 
The focal point of the paper are students at the Faculty of humanities and social sciences Zagreb, one of the largest faculties in Croatia and their perception about digital literacy, one of the most important literacies for the industry 4.0 framework and beyond. Digital literacy is an ability to use digital tools and services, and it also includes high-order thinking skills such as analysis, synthesis evaluation, and critical and creative thinking. This paper presents the results of the research study in different aspects of digital literacy. Questionnaire with 12 questions was used as the research tool using convenience sample (a non-probability sampling method) to reach as many different individuals with unique characteristics as possible. The results show that the respondents recognized important characteristics of digital literacy such as awareness of content in digital environment, analysis of content in digital environment, management of content in digital environment as highly valuable. The students who participated in this research study are well acquainted with the term digital literacy and their answers to a series of questions regarding different aspects of digital literacy indicated understanding of these aspects and their importance for future professional and personal wellbeing of students.
12.E. Martinčević, V. Vidaček Hainš (Faculty of Organization and Informatics University of Zagreb, Varaždin, Croatia)
Face-to-Face and Online Communication and Etiquette in Secondary Education 
Good communication is the key for succeeding in any aspect of our lives, meaning it is essential for education as well. Besides communication, the significance of etiquette plays an important part in providing a sense of belonging to a certain community. The aim of this research paper is to investigate and shine new light on communication and etiquette among high school students and teaching staff in Varaždin County. This paper has been divided into theoretical and empirical part. In the theoretical part of the paper, the emphasis will be on communication and etiquette and their significance in secondary education. For the empirical part of the work, research will be carried out where obtained data will be statistically analyzed and interpreted. The findings of this research will serve as a base for determining the quality of communication and etiquette in the aforementioned high school.
13.M. Kućar, V. Vidaček Hainš (Faculty of Organization and Informatics, Varaždin, Croatia), R. Kovačić (Electromechanical School , Varaždin, Croatia)
Examining the Relationship between Students’ Social Media Usage, Smartphone Checking during Lessons/Studying, and Academic Achievement (GPA) 
The interaction of young people with modern technology, specifically social media, is being studied in the context of their mental health, academic performance, and other psychological functions. This cross-sectional study aimed to examine the relationship between the students' usage of social media, smartphone checking during lessons or while studying, and their academic achievement (GPA). In total, 225 participants took part in the study, with a mean age of 17.22 years (SD=1.57). To examine the role of time spent on FB/IG, frequency of checking FB/IG, and smartphone checking during lessons/while studying, a hierarchical regression analysis was made. In the first step of the analysis, the participants' age and gender were controlled for, and both were significant predictors of the students' academic achievement. Younger age and female gender predicted a higher GPA. The amount of time spent on IG was a negative predictor of the student's GPA. The frequency of FB checking was also a negative predictor of the GPA, meaning students who checked FB more frequently had higher GPAs. The two different measures of social media usage (time spent and frequency of checking) were moderately congruent. In total, the regression model explained 20% of the variance in the criteria (the GPA).
Friday, 5/26/2023 9:00 AM - 12:00 PM,
Collegium, Grand hotel Adriatic, Opatija
9:00 AM - 12:00 PMPapers
Chair: Ivan Kaštelan 
1.A. Shuhaiber, A. Alkuwaiti , M. Alremeithi , H. Almenhali (Zayed University, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates)
The Development of Smart E-Portfolio Generator System for University Students: An SDLC Approach 
E-portfolio is a creative tool for documenting, analysing and monitoring students’ learning achievements and milestones. An e-portfolio is a computerized collection of documents and certifications that reflect a university student, such as demos, resources, and accomplishments. Since earning a university degree is not enough anymore and other soft and technical skills and certification are required, it became hard for students and graduates to collect and display their achievements in one environment, especially ones with imposter syndrome. Therefore, an e-portfolio generator system has been proposed to collect, store and display user’s documents and certifications in a dashboard. The methodology followed to develop this system is System Development Life Cycle (SDLC). The E-portfolio generator system is a user-friendly system. It enables the users to upload user documents, live-chat, dashboard creation and receiving alerts. Furthermore, the system will optimize the process of gathering, displaying, and storing user’s data in one dashboard. The research is concluded with conclusions and suggestions for further improvement.
2.D. Njegovan, B. Frigan (VERN' University, Zagreb, Croatia), T. Babić (Algebra University College, Zagreb, Croatia)
Tolerance for Disagreement in Communication via Instagram 
Instagram represents the most used social media in the Republic of Croatia among the age group between 18 and 34 years old, which serves them to publish edited photos and videos. Nowadays, Instagram also represents one of the dominant digital communication channels, and the ability to communicate successfully as one of the most important life and business skills is equally important in the virtual world. Successful communication requires tolerance, and intolerance leads to a lack of understanding in communication and disagreements that can lead to efficient or unsuccessful cooperation. The aim of the research presented in this paper was to determine how students self-assess their tolerance for disagreement on Instagram, whether they enjoy when there is a disagreement in communication via Instagram, do they find it amusing, do they try to resolve it, or do they try to avoid the disagreement. The research was conducted through a questionnaire in the Google forms tool, on a sample of students from the College of Algebra and VERN University in the winter semester of the academic year 2022/2023.
3.T. Mijač, M. Jadrić, M. Ćukušić (Faculty of Economics, Business and Tourism, Split, Croatia)
How to Measure Co-Creation in the Digital Environment of Higher Education? 
Co-creation, as a form of collaborative innovation, has been a topic of growing interest in Higher Education (HE). Regardless of the industry, engaging end-users in the design of products and services has been assessed as important for the success of the initiatives and is often considered a means to increase competitive advantage. As all markets face digital transformation impetus that permanently alters product and service delivery, the physical aspect of the delivery becomes secondary in many cases. Namely, most services nowadays are delivered exclusively online, and the area of (higher) education is no exception. New generations of learners belonging to Gen Z are connected 24/7, their digital experiences and expectations have evolved, and are prepared to engage with the product or service providers. In that regard, previously developed research instruments focusing on general services (as opposed to digital ones) comprising of two dimensions (customer participation and citizenship behaviour), need validation in the new context. This study aimed to test it in the digital service environment of HE with more than 550 students (as end-users) from different HE institutions in Croatia. To that end, confirmatory analysis using structural equation modelling confirmed that not all subdimensions are relevant in the digital context.
4.C. Ungermanns, W. Werth, C. Madritsch, A. Schöndorfer (CUAS, Villach, Austria)
Prototyp of an Optical - Electrical Measuring System for the Determination of the Gravitational Constant for Teaching Purposes 
Newton's gravitational constant plays an outstanding role in physics and is the most imprecisely determined natural constant from an experimental point of view. To determine this constant, one uses a set-up according to Cavendish, the so-called Cavendish experiment. The aim of the present work is to reconstruct this experiment and to implement a suitable measuring system with automated data acquisition and evaluation. This system is to be used in the physics lecture as a demonstrator and didactic support. Two tasks were addressed and solved: 1. mechanical construction of a torsion balance 2. automated measurement data acquisition and evaluation This paper deals with the second part. The result of this work is a complete characterization of the mechanical properties of the torsion balance and the construction of a functional, automated optical-electrical measuring and evaluation system for determining the gravitational constant G.
5.B. Balon, A. Skendžić (College for Information Technologies, Zagreb, Croatia), M. Simić (The First Techical School Tesla, Zagreb, Croatia)
Using VIDI-X Microcomputers in High School and College Education 
- This paper describes the application of the VIDIX development microcomputer for educational purposes. VIDI-X is a platform developed entirely in Croatia and another great way to popularize STEM and learn new skills. VIDI-X is based on a dual-core ESP 32 processor and comes with a temperature sensor, a microphone, and a 2.8" touch screen. The possibilities of connection and application are enormous considering the diverse communication possibilities (Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, IR). VIDI-X is a significantly more powerful platform than Arduino, and unlike the Raspberry Pi computer, it does not need an operating system, and it can be programmed on a Windows, Linux, or Mac OS computer. It is possible to work in Python, C, C++, JavaScript, and other popular programming languages. Our students first installed the Arduino IDE on their laptops, and then connected the laptops to VIDI-X, and a series of exercises followed that combine the use of software and hardware. Our experience with this platform in the undergraduate computing curricula, at both the high school and college levels is presented here.
6.S. Ribić, K. Hodžić (Elektrotehnički fakultet, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina)
Educational Processor with Single-cycle Instructions SVEU16 
Courses of the principles of digital computers usually begin with elementary logic circuits, proceed through increasingly complex ones, and often end with the design of a central processing unit. Such processors are typically simpler to explain than commercial microprocessors, but also often have very limited capabilities. The educational processor presented in this paper has a good balance between simplicity and capabilities. All its instructions, including multiplication and bit rotation, are executed in one clock cycle. The method of encoding and decoding instructions is quite simplified so that the encoding of instructions can be done even manually without tables, and the decoder unit is a simple forwarding of parts of the instruction word to the control bits of multiplexers. The processor is characterized by symmetry around the number 16: it has 16 three-operand instructions, 16 registers, each register is 16 bits wide, as well as the address and data bus. It is simulated at the level of logic gates, a Verilog implementation on FPGA, and an emulated computer run by an implementation of a Forth interpreter written partly in its machine language.
7.D. Blažević (VERN' University, Zagreb, Croatia), T. Babić (Algebra University College, Zagreb, Croatia)
Students' Perception of Influencer Marketing on Instagram 
Influencer marketing on social media is one of the fastest-growing trends in marketing and advertising campaigns. Advertisers are investing more and more funds in that type of marketing due to the fact that influencers have big and loyal fan bases that they influence, especially when it comes to buying the products that they advertise. Social media platform Instagram is one of the most popular platforms for influencer marketing, given that it is a social media for posting photos and videos, and the captions are usually short (few words and hashtags), so they correspond to what the target audience of most of the advertisers (generation Z) wants. The research presented in this paper was conducted in the winter semester of 2022/2023. at VERN' University and Algebra University College, on a sample of 106 students. The purpose of this research was to examine students' perception of influencer marketing, and whether they think that this method of marketing is something that encourages them to purchase a product that is advertised.
8.L. Yade, A. Gueye , P. Sow, A. Ndiaye (Alioune Diop University of Bambey, Bambey, Senegal)
Physics-Electronics Practical Work Model Accessible and Manipulable Remotely via the Web 
Laboratory experiments are nowadays the most effective way to develop skills in the STEM field. However, these labs are usually conducted in a classroom setting, which is problematic in the current context of higher education, which is marked by the massification of students. Researchers have proposed solutions for conducting remote tutorials for computer science courses (programming, networking) and upgrading the functionality of LMS platforms using screen sharing, virtualization and the cloud. However, the solutions for remote tutorials in the field of electronic physics are very limited and do not take into account the flexibility and simultaneous access to tutorials. In this paper, we propose a model of physics-electronics practical work accessible and manipulable remotely via the web. To illustrate the relevance of our model, we propose a device for detecting a laser signal via fiber optics controlled by a Raspberry Pi from our web platform. The students can realize simultaneously via the web several benches of TP driven by one or several raspberry which are in their turn controlled remotely via the web.
9.L. Bandić, P. Perić (VERN University, Zagreb, Croatia), T. Babić (Algebra University College, Zagreb, Croatia)
Digital Culture and Students' Awareness of Their Participation in This Phenomenon 
Digital culture is a complex phenomenon that pervades contemporary digital society. Digital culture can be interpreted through any activity in the digital sphere such as work, communication, creation, recreation, or just entertainment. Modern students are highly connected to and highly dependent on digital culture. For the purposes of this paper, the aim of the conducted research was to investigate whether students are at all familiar with the concept and meaning of digital culture, if they are aware of their participation in digital culture, the impact it has on them, whether they use the contents of the digital environment in a targeted and rational manner, and do they feel a connection with it and what feelings it evokes in them in general. The research was conducted with a self-assessment questionnaire that contained questions on the emotional, behavioral, and cognitive levels of a sample of students of VERN' University and Algebra University College in the winter semester of the academic year 2022/2023.
10.A. Shuhaiber, R. Hiyasat, A. Abuelsamen, N. Ghanem, M. Alhammadi, A. Alghafri (Zayed University, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates)
A Smart Desk: A Smart Solution for Young Students 
Boredom while doing homework is a common problem faced by young school students. This can affect their learning progress and achievements. On the other hand, toddlers and young children are becoming more and more experience with technology. This paper aims towards taking advantage of kids’ vast experience with technology to better achieve learning outcomes; thereby, developing a smart desk that can smartly check for progress, entertain student while studying, and provide comfort to young users and their parents for daily learning activities. The methodology followed to develop this smart desk is the waterfall SDLC, where a system is developed, analyzed, designed and initially implemented. More precisely, requirements were gathered, modeled, and analyzed, the interfaces and databases were designed, coding and testing took place subsequently. The desk’s features include following up with students’ homework, measuring students’ learning progress based on the scheduled tasks, cheering students when achieving a milestone, alerting for time breaks and more. The smart desk is also a friendly to-use system for juniors. Further, schools and academic institutions can embrace the new technology, thus benefitting from the gains of having a smart desk. The study concluded with implications and future development directions.
11.D. Kager (OŠ Eugena Kvaternika, Velika Gorica, Croatia), A. Marinšek (KU Leuven, Ghent, Belgium)
A Gamified Learning Scenario for Introducing Pupils to the Scientific Method through Experimentation and Programming 
Elementary and high school students learn about numerous physical phenomena that make up our everyday life. However, physics is most often perceived as boring and only a handful of students remember what they learned in the classroom. Schools nowadays have the necessary equipment, such as micro:bit single board computers (SBCs), to digitalize physical experiments and make them more attractive to students. Due to limited teacher training and learning material availability, these modern tools are unfortunately often left out of the physics class. In this paper, we describe Galileo XR – a learning activity, ranked among the best three proposals at the Science is Wonderful! 2023 competition, wherein students’ study everyday physical phenomena in a fun and inclusive way. The gamified scenario guides them through 6 workstations, corresponding to 6 physical phenomena, where they are embraced to make certain observations and record measurement data using different sensors on the micro:bit SBC, for which they are rewarded with encrypted clues regarding the final solution. Students are motivated to apply the scientific method throughout their quest to find the forgotten scientist, Galileo Galilei. Additionally, we evaluate the observations and student questionnaire results, obtained during Galileo XR’s prototype launch.

Basic information:

Marina Čičin-Šain (Croatia), Jaak Henno (Estonia), Hannu Jaakkola (Finland), Snježana Babić (Croatia)

Steering Committee:

Michael E. Auer (Austria), Marjan Krašna (Slovenia), Nadica Kunštek (Croatia), Dusko Lukac (Germany), Robert Repnik (Slovenia)

Program Committee:

Lejla Abazi-Bexheti (Macedonia), Nikola Kadoić (Croatia), Ivan Kaštelan (Serbia), Mario Konecki (Croatia), Božidar Kovačić (Croatia), Gorana Mudronja (Croatia), Dana Paľová (Slovakia), Libuša Révészová (Slovakia), Frano Škopljanac-Mačina (Croatia), Andreja Špernjak (Slovenia)

Registration / Fees:

Price in EUR
Up to 8 May 2023
From 9 May 2023
Members of MIPRO and IEEE 230 260
Students (undergraduate and graduate), primary and secondary school teachers 120 140
Others 250 280

The discount doesn't apply to PhD students.


Marina Cicin-Sain
University of Rijeka
Faculty of Economics
I. Filipovica 4
HR-51000 Rijeka, Croatia

GSM: +385 91 735 9423

The best papers will get a special award.
Accepted papers will be published in the ISSN registered conference proceedings. Presented papers in English will be submitted for inclusion in the IEEE Xplore Digital Library.
There is a possibility that the selected scientific papers with some further modification and refinement are being published in the following journals: Journal of Computing and Information Technology (CIT)MDPI Applied ScienceMDPI Information JournalFrontiers and EAI Endorsed Transaction on Scalable Information Systems.


Opatija is the leading seaside resort of the Eastern Adriatic and one of the most famous tourist destinations on the Mediterranean. With its aristocratic architecture and style, Opatija has been attracting artists, kings, politicians, scientists, sportsmen, as well as business people, bankers and managers for more than 170 years.

The tourist offer in Opatija includes a vast number of hotels, excellent restaurants, entertainment venues, art festivals, superb modern and classical music concerts, beaches and swimming pools – this city satisfies all wishes and demands.

Opatija, the Queen of the Adriatic, is also one of the most prominent congress cities in the Mediterranean, particularly important for its ICT conventions, one of which is MIPRO, which has been held in Opatija since 1979, and has attracted more than a thousand participants from over forty countries. These conventions promote Opatija as one of the most desirable technological, business, educational and scientific centers in South-eastern Europe and the European Union in general.

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